Curriculum: NCERT Case Background (PDF)
Grade(s): 10 Ingredients of a Case (PDF)
Subject: Social Studies Oral Arguments (PDF)
Textbook: Social and Political Life – 1 Constitutional History (PDF)
Unit: Democratic Politics Judgment (PDF)
Level of difficulty: Easy
Personal laws regulate marriage, divorce, maintenance, inheritance and succession for Indian citizens. These laws are largely influenced by religious customs of different communities. However they are criticized for perpetuating gender inequality and discriminatory attitudes. While Muslim personal laws receive the most flak for being discriminatory, some argue that Hindu laws are no different.
The core controversy surrounding this issue has been the conflict between personal laws and gender justice. In this context, there has been continued demand for a Uniform Civil Code (UCC) - a standardized law regulating all aspects of personal law.
Sharaya Bano v. Union of India, a case in which the Supreme Court invalidated divorces resulting from Triple Talaq, reignited this issue. Though the case did not touch upon UCC, it delved into issues regarding personal laws and gender justice.
This exercise provides a series of worksheets which aim to provide a deeper understanding of religion, personal laws and gender justice through constitutional history and the Sharaya Bano case.