Definition of State
Equality
forced labour
Reservation
Constitutional remedies
right to property
minority rights
religious education
freedom of religion
child labour
untouchability
due process
personal liberty
right to life
freedom of speech
right to freedom
abolition of titles
equality of opportunity
Discrimination
preventive detention
double jeopardy
union list
finance commission
fiscal federalism
taxation
residuary power
union of states
kashmir
seventh schedule
state list
emergency
parliamentary executive
supreme court
high court
judiciary
governor
powers of president
legislature
judicial review
public health
gender
international relations
separation of powers
protection of monuments
cow slaughter
social justice
compulsory education
cottage industry
public assistance
local government
panchayat
natural resources
enforceability
proportional representation
separate electorates
election commission
integration of states
universal adult suffrage

Speaker

B.R. Ambedkar

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9.143.653
     : No, No. The whole question has been discussed and decided.
9.143.635
     : Sir, I move     "That for article 99, the following article be substituted:--Language to be used in Parliament.  99. (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in Part XIV A of this constitution but subject to the provisions of article 301F thereof, business in Parliament shall be transacted in Hindi or in English.   Provided that the Chairm...

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9.142.37
: I shall try hereafter to acquire that experience.
9.142.124
But I think in making a law we ought to take into consideration the worst and not the best. Therefore if we follow upon that position, namely, that there may be many parties and people who may not be patient enough, if I may say so, to follow constitutional methods but are impatient in reaching their objective and for that purpose resort to unc...

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9.133.289
     : Yes, Sir, I will move them first. Sir, I move:     "That in sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 14, after the words 'autonomous districts in the State' the words, brackets, letters and figures 'including matters specified in clauses (b), (c), (d) and (e) of sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 1 of this Schedule' be inserted."     "That in sub-para...
9.133.348
     : Sir, I move:     "That sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 15 be omitted."

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9.129.70
       Sir, I move:     "That in entry 83 of List I, after the word 'railway' a comman and the word 'sea' be inserted."
9.129.455
 Sir, there are, I think three distinct questions, although they have not been stated by Mr. Tyagi in that form. The first question is whether the Provincial legislature should or should not have any power to regulate and control houses and house-rent. I think on that issue, there can be no difference of opinion, that the provincial Governments...

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9.128.314
     : It is only proper that each Legislature should have the authority to define its own privileges, immunities and powers, and it is for that reason that we have provided that Parliament should have power to specify the privileges, immunities and powers of its own members, and the State Legislatures should have similar power with regard to t...
9.128.187
     : I do not think that either of these two amendments is necessary. The purpose which my Friend Professor Shibban Lal Saksena has in view, viz., that entry 63 should also permit the Centre to regulate prospecting for oil, etc., would be served by the words we have used "Regulation and development". With regard to the addition of the word "co...

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9.127.266
      Sir, I move :     "That in entry 41 of List I for the words "and Zoological" the words "Zoological and Anthropological" be substituted."
9.127.83
     The second part of this entry - "Offences against the law of nations committed on land or the high seas or in the air." is new. It was an omission made in the earlier part, of the draft. With regard to the first part, we are substituting the word "crimes" for "felonies and offences", as it is the common word used in India. "Felonies and of...

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11.165.74
     Act No. IV of 1949 is called "The Government of India (Third Amendment) Act 1949."
11.165.6
    Sir, I move:     "That the Bill further to amend the Government of India Act, 1935, be taken into consideration by the Assembly at once." #government of india act, amendment##

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7.48.206
The proposed Indian Constitution is a dual polity  with a single citizenship. There is only one citizenship for the whole of India. It is Indian citizenship. There is no State citizenship. Every Indian has the same rights of citizenship, no matter in what State he resides.
7.48.201
So far I have explained the form of Government under the Draft Constitution. I will now turn to the other question, namely, the form of the Constitution.

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8.105.212
Now, Sir, the original proposal under article 289 was that there should be one Commission to deal with the elections to the Central Legislature, both the Upper and the Lower House, and that there should be a separate Election Commission for each province and each State, to be appointed by the Governor or the Ruler of the State. Comparing that w...
8.105.172
I move:     "That with reference to amendment No. 2980 of the List of Amendment, in clause (1) of article 274, after the word and figure `Part I' the words and figures `or Part III' be inserted." 

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9.136.303
Sir, if you permit me, I shall move the other amendments also and then offer some general observations to enable Members to understand the changes that we propose to make.
9.136.175
 : Sir, when this matter came up last time before the House there was a lot of debate as to what was exactly intended, what the House could do and what I was prepared to accept. You were kind enough to say that the matter might be recommitted to the Drafting Committee. The Drafting Committee after consideration of the same has brought forth new ...

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8.102.162
    When passed. This is what is called Consolidated Fund Act I.  
8.102.171
     Sir, I do not think there is any necessity to say anything more. I am only moving an amendment:     "That after sub-clause (c), of clause (1), the following words be added after 'and' and before 'to':-'Parliament shall have power.' "

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9.134.142
     In this connection I would like to remind the House of the new article 16- A which has just been passed. I would like you to refer to that. In framing article 16- A, two questions were raised. One question related to some two mouzas of what are called the Garo Hills. Along with that the question of the Dimapur area was also raised by my Fr...
9.134.149
     : I am very sorry. Therefore, so far as paragraph 16-A is concerned, it provides separation for the purpose of political requirements. If complete separation is wanted I submit it is already provided for in the paragraph we have passed. If it does not do that, I am prepared to add a clause to make that thing quite clear that the Governor w...

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9.115.133
  The important change by my amendment No. 107 is that originally the Government of India was given a free hand in this matter; now the action of the Government of India is subject to such conditions as may be laid down by or under any law made by Parliament.
9.115.124
 : Sir, except for the last oration of my Friend Prof. K. T. Shah in which he suggested that we should introduce a clause putting limitation upon the authority of Parliament to sanction loans, I was really quite unable to understand the dissent which has been expressed by other speakers with regard to the provision contained in article 268. It i...

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7.73.296
 : No, Sir.
7.73.130
: Sir, I have nothing to say.

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9.107.122
     Both for the Asselmbly and the Council of States.
9.107.176
     :  I have no objection. We can have another go at it.

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10.146.105
    That will be taken undoubtedly. "Appointment" means taking the oath office. Otherwise there is no appointment.
10.146.188
    I do not accept it. The import of this article is very limited. It is the determination of the population, not delimitation of constituencies. The delimitation of constituencies will take place according to the provisions of the Constitution.

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7.74.147
    Mr. Vice-President, Sir, of the many amendments which have been moved to this article, I can accept only two. One is No. 1158 moved by my Friend, Mr. Gupte providing of fourteen day's notice for the discussion of a motion to impeach the President. The second amendment which I am prepared to accept is amendment No.1160 moved by my Friend Mr. ...
7.74.256
     Secondly, so far as this particular clause is concerned I find that his amendment is quite unnecessary, because if he will read sub-clause (1) of article 54 he will see that it is stated "to fill such vacancy enters upon his office". Surely the entering upon office will be at sometime in the day-it may be midnight or it may be 12 o'clock in...

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8.101.63
    Now, if I may say so, a similar question was raised by my Friend Shri Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar when we were dealing with article 121, which also dealt with appeals to the Supreme Court in cases which were of a mixed type, namely, cases where there was a question of constitutional law along with questions of the interpretation of ordinary la...
8.101.177
: I do not think I can add anything usefully to what Mr. T. T. Krishnamachari has said. I should reserve my observations for the various amendments which will come up as I have no doubt the same arguments will be put forth.

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7.83.251
   I have already said that I would delete it. Coming to the amendment of Mr. Hanumanthaiya, he wants to omit the words `in the year 1950'. His argument has a good deal of sense behind it, because according to him if this Constituent Assembly were to make this declaration by this Resolution fixing 1950 as a target and if for some reason, either ...
7.83.292
     Sir, if the Members who are interested in it are not satisfied with the assurance that I am giving now, they can at some stage--it is not possible to do it now--move an amendment to article 149 permitting the President to have an interim census, if he deems it necessary, taken, for the purpose of removing the grievances to which they have ...

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11.157.231
: ....That when martial law is there it is not merely the duty of the Commander-in- Chief to punish people, it is the duty of every individual citizen of the State to take the responsibility on his own shoulder and come to the help of the Commander-in-Chief. Consequently if it was found that any person who was an ordinary citizen and did not b...
11.157.241
  With regard to article 148 I need say nothing at this stage for the simple reason that the amendment moved by my friend Mr. T. T. Krishnamachari (No. 618) is one which has found itself agreeable to all those who had taken interest in this particular article.

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8.100.2
   I am not moving that amendment.
8.100.60
     No, Sir. I do not think that any reply is called for.

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10.153.14
Sir, as everyone knows, the sales tax has created a great deal of difficulty throughout India in the matter of freedom of trade and commerce. It has been found that the very many sales taxes which are levied by the various Provincial Governments either cut into goods which are the subject matter of imports or exports, or cut into what is called...
10.153.90
Although I am prepared to say that the financial system which has been laid down in the scheme of the Draft Constitution is better than any other financial system that I know of. I think it must be said that it suffers from one defect. That defect is that the Provinces are very largely dependent for their resources upon the grants made to them ...

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8.104.50
In showing the necessary why it is desirable in my judgment to confer appellate criminal jurisdiction upon the Supreme Court as specified in the sub-clause of article 111-A. I proposed to separate sub-clause (a) and (b) from sub-clause (c) because they stand on a different footing. As the House knows, (a) and (b) confine the appellate jurisdict...
8.104.49
Mr. President, Sir, I rise to make just a few observations in order to give the House the correct idea of what is proposed to be done by the introduction of this new article 111-A. The first thing which I should make clear is that it is not the intention of article 111-A to confer general criminal appellate jurisdiction upon the Supreme Court. ...

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7.70.157
Now, Sir, with regard to the argument that clause (4) should be deleted, I am afraid, if I may say so without any offence, that it is a very extravagant demand, a very tall order. There can be no doubt that while there are certain fundamental rights which the State must guarantee to the individual in order that the individual may have some secu...
7.70.70
: With your permission I will just make one or two corrections to some words which crept into the drafting by mistake. Sir, with those corrections, my amendment will read as follows:     "That for the existing sub-clause (3) of article 25, the following clause be substituted:'Without prejudice to the powers conferred on the Supreme Court by cla...

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10.149.18
     I hope that the figures suggested by the Drafting Committee as salaries for the various functionaries dealt with in this Schedule will commend themselves to the House.
10.149.16
     I need not say much about the salary of the Governors. That has been fixed by an Order made recently by the Governor-General, and they appear to me to be quite reasonable and it also observes the same principle that in the provinces where the highest paid official is the Chief Justice the Governor should get something more than the Chief Ju...

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9.120.36
    I am not speaking of the jute duty because it stands on a separate footing and has been statutorily guaranteed.
9.120.49
    My reply to that is this : Where is the reason to believe that in modifying or exercising the power of the President to modify the Provisions relating to the distribution of the income-tax he will act so arbitrarily as to take away altogether the proceeds of the income-tax ? Where is the ground for believing that the President will not even ...

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8.97.322
: Sir, I move:"That after clause (1) of article 166, the following new clause be inserted:-`(1a) No person shall be a member of the Legislature of two or more States and if a person is chosen a member of the Legislatures of two or more States, then at the expiration of such period as may be specified in rules made by the President that person's...
8.97.110
That, I think, ought not to be forgotten. This article, nowhere, either in clause (a) or clause (b) or clause (c), says that the Governor in any particular circumstances may overrule the Ministry. Therefore, the criticism that has been made that this article somehow enables the Governor to interfere or to upset the decision of the Cabinet is en...

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7.72.56
It is quite clear to anyone who has listened to the debate that has taken place last time that there are two sharp points of view. One point of view says that "due process of law" must be there in this article; otherwise the article is a nugatory one. The other point of view is that the existing phraseology is quite sufficient for the purpose. ...
7.72.28
: Mr. Vice-President     "That to article 43, the following explanation be added:--     `Explanation.--In this and the next succeeding article, the expression "the Legislature of a State" means, where the legislature is bi-cameral, the lower House of the legislature.' "

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9.126.73
  The only words added are "and Investigation". Otherwise the entry is the same as it exists in the draft.
9.126.100
: He has got another.

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7.76.199
With regard to his third proposition, viz., that if a person who is appointed a member of the Cabinet is not a member of the Legislature, he must become a member of the legislature within six months, I may point out that this has been provided for in article 62 (5). This amendment is therefore unnecessary.
7.76.44
This matter goes back to the Round Table Conference which was held in 1930. Everyone who is familiar with what happened in the Round Table Conference, which was held in 1930 will remember that the two major parties who were represented in that Conference, namely the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress, found themselves at loggerheads...

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8.87.120
Sir, I am sorry I cannot accept the amendment of Mr. Kamath.
8.87.156
I submit constitutionally it is, because the administration of the oath is an incident in the constitution of the House, over which the Speaker has no authority.......

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8.89.46
     : Supposing there is a brawl in the House I do not like to put it that way. But, supposing there is a brawl in the House, and the Speaker, not finding any officer at hand to remove a certain Member, asks certain other Member who is present to remove the Member who is causing the brawl. Then that particular Members is the Member who is inv...
8.89.48
     : 'Officer' would be there.

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10.154.85
 : I cannot at this stage consider any drafting amendments.
10.154.82
It seems to me that any such Act would amount to a derogation from the authority of the High Court which this Constitution intends to confer upon it. Therefore, it is felt necessary that before such law becomes final, the President should have the opportunity to examine whether such a law should be permitted to take effect or whether such a law...

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8.99.214
Sir, I accept the amendment moved by my Friend Mr. Tek Chand. The point is a very simple one. We are undoubtedly repealing the Government of India Act, 1935, and the Indian Independence Act and the orders made thereunder from the date of the passing of this Constitution; but it has to be realised that while we are putting these Statutes, so to ...
8.99.128
The Draft Constitution contains no provision for review of its judgments. It was felt that that was a great lacuna and this new article proposes to confer that power upon the Supreme Court.

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8.106.75
I shall move the other amendment also for inserting new article 289-B. I move:     "That for amendment No. 3087 of the List of Amendments, the following be substituted;-     "That after article 289-A, the following new article be inserted:-289-B.  The elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assembly of every State shall be o...
8.106.51
Now with regard to the question of appointment I must confess that there is a great deal of force in what my Friend Professor Saksena said that there is no use making the tenure of the Election Commissioner a fixed and secure tenure if there is no provision in the Constitution to prevent either a fool or a knave or a person who is likely to be ...

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9.108.132
 :Sir, I move:"That with reference to Amendment No. 2713 of the List of Amendments, clause (2) of Article 212 be omitted."
9.108.6
 :I have no objection, Sir, I am entirely in your hands.

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9.111.88
: Yes. Because that is a normal power even in other cases. When there is no emergency both have got power to legislate on the subject. I see therefore no reason why that power should be taken away during emergency. On the other hand I should have thought that emergency was one of the reasons why such a power should be given to the State.
9.111.49
: In regard to the general debate which has taken place in which it has been suggested that these articles are liable to be abused, I may say that I do not altogether deny that there is a possibility of these articles being abused or employed for political purposes. But that objection applies to every part of the Constitution which gives power ...

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8.98.29
    Sir, not very long ago this very matter was debated in this House, when we were discussing the privileges of Parliament and I thought that as the House had accepted the article dealing with the privileges and immunities of Parliament no further debate would follow when we were really reproducing the very same provision with regard to the Sta...
8.98.212
       Sir, I move:     "That with reference to amendments Nos. 1916 to 1919 of the List of Amendments, in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) of article 111, after the words 'twenty thousand rupees', the words 'or such other sum as may be specified in this behalf by 'Parliament by law' be inserted." (Amendment No. 1918 was not moved.)

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7.62.12
But I can quite understand that a person who is not properly instructed in the rules of interpretation of Statute may put the construction which my Friend Mr. Naziruddin Ahmad is seeking to put, and therefore to avoid this difficulty, with your permission, I would suggest that in the amendment which I have moved to sub-clause (3) of article 8, ...
7.62.118
I am very sorry I cannot give opinions regarding amendments which have not been moved.

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9.121.100
     And here I want to add a third one, as (c):"(c) is in the opinion of the president unfit to continue in office by reason of infirmity of mind or body.     (4) For the purpose of clause (1) of this article, the Chairman or any other member of a Public Service Commission may be deemed to be guilty of misbehaviour if he is or becomes in any w...
9.121.116
   You must have read both drafts. The only thing you might not have read are the commas and semi-colons.

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8.86.59
The first part of the recommendation of the second session, if I may say so, of the Union Constitution committee has already been incorporated in article 67 which has already been passed by the Assembly. It is to give effect to the second part of the recommendation of the Union Constitution Committee that this article is proposed to be introduc...
8.86.117
: Mr. President, Sir, I beg to move:     "That the following new article be inserted after article 68 :-     '68-A. A person shall not be qualified to be chosen to fill a seat in Parliament unless he-(a) is a citizen of India;(b) is, in the case of a seat in the Council of States, not less than thirty-five years of age and, in the case of a se...

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9.141.33
:Sir, I move:"That after article 15, the following article be inserted:- Protection against certain arrests and detentions. '15A. (1) No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest nor shall he be denied the right to consult a legal practitioner of his choice.(2) ...
9.141.45
 : Sir, may I say a word ? I am prepared to accept one of the amendments of my honourable Friend which says that the accused shall have the right to be defended. I can add these words in the last line of clause (1) of article 15A. It will run thus : be denied the right to consult or to be defended by lawyers of his, choice'. I think that will ca...

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9.135.288
  Mr. President, I do not think I can usefully add anything to what my Friends Shri T. T. Krishnamachari and Shri Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar have said.
9.135.201
: Sir. I move :

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8.96.72
: This is my reply. The Canadians and the Australians have not found it necessary to delete this provision even at this stage. They are quite satisfied that the retention of this provision in section 55 of the Canadian Act is fully compatible with responsible government, If they had felt that this provision was not compatible with responsible ...
8.96.70
: That does not matter at all. The date of the Act does not matter.

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9.130.393
 : I suggest that amendment No.122 might be treated as an independent thing which may be brought in by an additional entry. Then subsequently the Drafting Committee may work the two things together if accepted. Subject to that, this entry may go. Those interested in 122 may be permitted to bring in this in the form of an additional entry.
9.130.336
 : I cannot accept this amendment. As our system of revenue assessment is at present regulated, it would upset the whole of the provincial administration. The matter may, at a subsequent state be investigated either by Parliament or by the different provinces, and if they come to some kind of an arrangement as to the levy of land revenue and ad...

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7.68.168
:  Well, I do not know exactly the character of the institutions to which my Friend Mr. Maitra has made reference and it is therefore quite difficult for me.
7.68.162
The third thing which I would like to mention in this connection is that unfortunately the religions which prevail in this country are not merely non-social; so far as their mutual relations are concerned, they are anti-social, one religion claiming that its teachings constitute the only right path for salvation, that all other religions are wr...

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8.103.189
     Sir, I move: "That for amendment No. 23, the following amendment be substituted:-"That after the new article 112-A, the following article be inserted:-Conference on the Supreme Court of Appellate jurisdiction with regard to criminal matters.112-B. Parliament may by law confer on the Supreme Court power to entertain and hear appeals from any...
8.103.136
     I move further:     "(1) That with reference to amendment No. 2807 of the List of Amendments, in clause (2) of article 238, after the word `by law' the words 'made by Parliament' be added.     (2) That with reference to amendment No. 2807 of the List of Amendments, the proviso to article 238 be deleted."

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9.110.3
 If that is so, I agree.(Amendments Nos. 3004 and 3005 were not moved.)
9.110.25
     And then, Sir, I move amendment No. 160 of List II, which reads as follows :     "That for Article 278, the following Articles be substituted:-Provision in the case of failure of constitutional machinery in states.278. (1) If the President, on receipt of a report from the Governor or Ruler of a State or otherwise, is satisfied that the Gov...

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9.132.278
The proviso introduces a change. By comparing the proviso with the original provisos, it will be seen that there were two provisos to sub-paragraph (3). In the first proviso, the Governor could act under clause (b) or clause (c) on the recommendation of a Commission. But, if he wanted to act under clauses (d) or (e) he was required to have a re...
9.132.274
 : May I move that ?

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10.151.317
: We cannot discuss this question in this way.
10.151.158
: I have nothing to add to what has already been said.

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8.93.287
    : Mr. President, Sir, I would just like to make a few observations in order to clear the position. Sir, there is no doubt that the House in general, has agreed that the independence of the Judiciary from the Executive should be made as clear and definite as we could make it by law. At the same time, there is the fear that in the name of the ...
8.93.203
    : Sir, I want articles 109 to 114 be held over. The reason why I want these articles to be held over is because these articles while they state general rules, also make certain reservations with regard to the States in Part III of Schedule I. It is understood that the matter as to the position of the States in Part III is being reconsidered...

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8.95.195
:We have passed article 48 exactly in the same terms with reference to the President. Here, we are merely following article 48.  
8.95.114
:Well that power an elected or a nominated Governor will have. If he happens to call the wrong person to form a Ministry, he will soon find to his cost that he has made a wrong choice. That is not a thing that could be avoided by having an elected Governor. Such a Governor may have a friend of his choice whom he can call in to form a Ministry an...

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9.119.112
Then there were two points that were made, one of them by my Friend Mr. Nagappa. He wanted that a provision should be made for the representation of agricultural labour. I do not know that any such provision is necessary for the representation of agricultural labour in the Upper Chamber, because the Lower Chamber will be in my judgement having ...
9.119.109
Mr. Vice-President, Sir, out of the amendments that have been moved, I am prepared to accept the amendments moved by Mr. Sarwate. I think he has spotted a real difficulty in the draft as it stands. The draft says- 'University in the State'. It is quite obvious that there are many States with at present no university. All the same there are gradu...

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9.112.117
: No; Mr. Tyagi will move his amendment.(Amendments Nos. 2886 to 2896 were not moved.)
9.112.185
: Oh, Kirpans stand on quite a different footing.

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9.114.83
 : Mr. President, Sir, I can at once say that I am prepared to accept the amendment moved by my Friend Mr. Nichols-Roy. The draft of this article does seem to give the impression that until Parliament determines each year what the grants are to be, the President will have no power to do so. That certainly is not the intention of the Drafting Com...
9.114.143
     This is done in order to bring the same nomenclature in article 259 which has been given to this officer in the previous article this Assembly has passed.

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7.78.73
     The only important thing is that the number fifteen has been brought down to twelve.
7.78.272
    Yes.

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9.113.110
       Sir, I beg to move :     "That in article 255, for the words 'revenues of India', wherever they occur, the words 'Consolidated Fund of India' be substituted.     "That in the first proviso to article 255, the words and figures 'for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule' be omitted.     "That in clause (a) of the second ...
9.113.86
     Now, my Friend, Pandit Hirday Nath Kunzru, pointed out that the Drafting Committee was wrong in inserting a definition of the word "prescribe" in the article now before the House. He went further to say that even in the last article which we passed, which is 260, the word "prescribed" ought not to be there. Now, it seems to me somewhat dif...

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7.66.190
    I understand it was not moved.
7.66.91
     Sir, I therefore submit that the article as it stands is perfectly in order and I commend it to the House.

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7.63.271
: As I said in reply to my friend Mr.Naziruddin Ahmad, it is open for Parliament to take such action as it likes, and one of the actions which Parliament may take is to say that we shall not recognise these titles.
7.63.69
: There should be no attempt to make any distinction at all.

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10.148.129
Then I am moving my amendment No. 205 to substitute a different explanation."That in amendment No. 164 of List III (Second Week), for the Explanation to clause (1) of the proposed new article 312F, the following Explanation be substituted:--'Explanation.--For the purposes of this clause--(a) all such castes, races or tribes or parts of or group...
10.148.203
With your permission, I will explain the provisions tomorrow.

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8.90.160
     Now, I come to the third point raised in the course of the debate on this amendment and that is the question of the acceptance of office by members of the judiciary after retirement. There are two amendments on the point, one by Prof. Shah and the other by Shri Jaspat Roy Kapoor. I personally think that none of these amendment could be acc...
8.90.163
     Therefore, who else-can be appointed to positions like this, except persons who had judicial talent? It would be a very great handicap if these very persons who possess talent for doing work of this sort were deprived by provisions such as Shri Jaspat Roy Kapoor suggests. And I have said that the relation between the executive and judiciar...

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7.58.161
My friend, Mr. Hussain Imam, in rising to support the amendments, asked whether it was possible and desirable to have a uniform Code of laws for a country so vast as this is. Now I must confess that I was very much surprised at that statement, for the simple reason that we have in this country a uniform code of laws covering almost every aspect...
7.58.50
I may also add that I am quite agreeable to accept the amendment moved by Mr. Nagappa that the word 'agricultural' be added after word 'industrial'.

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10.147.235
    With regard to the point raised by my Friend Prof. Saksena in which he referred to the footnote to article 308. I am quite free to confess that on a better consideration, it was found by the Drafting Committee that the removal of difficulties clause may not be properly used for this purpose. In order to remove all doubt, we thought it was be...
10.147.165
     My Friend is thoroughly misinformed. He does not know what is being done.

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7.64.232
     "with reference to amendment No. 454 of the List of amendments--(i) in clauses (3), (4), (5) and (6) of article 13, after the words 'any existing law' the words 'in so far as it imposes' be inserted, and(ii) in clause (6) of article 13, after the words 'in particular' the words 'nothing in the said clause shall affect the operation of any e...
7.64.290
Sir, I move:     "That in clause (6) of article 13, for the words 'public order, morality or health', the words 'the general public' be substituted."

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7.65.175
I cannot yield now. I have not got much time left. I am explaining the position that has been taken by the Drafting Committee. The point is that it is not possible to allow this indiscriminate right. On the other hand my submission is that so far as bearing of arms is concerned, what we ought to insist upon is not the right of an individual to b...
7.65.171
It is because the British Government had refused to allow Indians to bear arms, not on the ground of peace and order, but on the ground that a subject people should not have the right to bear arms against an alien government so that they could organise themselves to overthrow the Government, and consequently the basic considerations on which the...

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7.75.153
 :  It might be desirable that I explain in a few words in its general outline the scheme embodied in article 59. It is this: the power of commutation of sentence for offences enacted by the Federal Law is vested in the President of the Union. The power to commute sentences for offences enacted by the State Legislatures is vested in the Governo...
7.75.11
Now, Sir, with regard to Prof. K. T. Shah's amendment that the disqualifications with regard to the Vice-President should be specified in the Constitution itself, that is a matter which I have already dealt with when replying to a similar amendment moved by him with regard to the President, and I said that this is a matter which could be provid...

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7.60.140
Sir, this amendment was thought necessary because apartfrom the territories which form part of India, there may beother territories which may not form part of India, but maynone-the-less be under the control of the Government ofIndia. There are many cases occurring now in internationalaffairs where territories are handed over to other countriesf...
7.60.155
The object of the Fundamental Rights is two-fold.First, that every citizen must be in a position to claimthose rights. Secondly, they must be binding upon everyauthority - I shall presently explain what the word"authority" means - upon every authority which has got eitherthe power to make laws or the power to have discretionvested in it. Therefo...

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9.109.90
  Sir, I move:     "That after article 213, the following new article be inserted:-High Courts for Stages in Part II of the First Schedule'213  (1) Parliament may by law constitute a High Court for a State for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule or declare any Court in any such State to be a High Court for the purposes of ...
9.109.106
The second change that is introduced is in sub-clause (c) of clause (2). Originally it was provided that the Proclamation shall cease to operate at the expiration of six months. It is now proposed that it should cease to operate at the expiration of two months. Six months was felt to be too long a period.

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7.59.65
Sir, I accept the amendment of Mr. Tyagi as amended by the amendment of Prof. ShibbanLalSaksena. (Laughter)
7.59.167
I accept the amendment of Pandit Thakur DassBhargava.

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9.125.20
 The original article provided that there should be a minority officer both in the Centre and in each of the provinces. It is now felt that, as the number of minorities has been considerably reduced, it is not desirable to have a cumbrous provision like that for having an officer in each province. The purpose of the original article will be carr...
9.125.11
That was the original proposition passed by this House. Subsequently the Advisory Committee came to the conclusion on the consent of the two minorities--Muslims and Christians--that they were not to be treated as minorities. When the House has now accepted that the only minorities to be provided for in this manner are the Scheduled Castes and t...

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9.118.214
     In order to put the House in a proper frame of mind--if I may say so without meaning any offence--I should like to draw the attention of the House to the wording of Section 291 of the Government of India Act as it was in operation before it was adapted after the Independence Act. Now I shall read just a few lines of that Section 291."In so ...
9.118.228
     I have been telling my honourable Friends that the Statement of Objects and Reasons is not a part of the Act and therefore, there can be no amendment moved to the deletion of any word or clause or sentence in the Statement of Objects and Reasons. As soon as this Bill becomes an Act, that Statement of Objects and Reasons will be thrown into ...

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7.54.47
I support the suggestion made by Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant.
7.54.77
I oppose the amendments.

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11.155.42
     Sir, I do not think it is necessary for me to add anything to the report of the Drafting Committee and I hope that the House will be able to accept the report as well as the changes recommended by the Drafting Committee both in the report as well as in List II which has already been circulated to the Members of the House.Amendments of Articles
11.155.42
     Sir, I do not think it is necessary for me to add anything to the report of the Drafting Committee and I hope that the House will be able to accept the report as well as the changes recommended by the Drafting Committee both in the report as well as in List II which has already been circulated to the Members of the House.Amendments of Articles

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8.94.73
: Mr. President, Sir, I move :     "That for the Explanation to article 125, the following Explanation be substituted :-          'Explanation.-In this article, the expression 'law made by Parliament' includes any law, ordinance, order, bye-law, rule or regulation passed or made before the commencement of this Constitution and for the time bein...
8.94.52
One difference, if I may point out, between the position which we have assigned to the Judiciary and which we propose to assign to the Auditor-General is this. It is only during the course of the last week that I moved an amendment to the original article 122 vesting in the Supreme Court the power of original draft as well as from the amendment...

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8.88.210
: No, Sir. I do not think any reply is necessary.
8.88.99
: Sir, I moved:"That is clause (2) of article 88, before the last word 'days' the word 'consecutive' be inserted."Amendment No. 1654 was not moved.

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9.123.122
  : Mr. President, Sir, a great many of the points which were raised in the course of the debate on this article and the various amendments are, in my judgment, quite irrelevant to the subject matter of this article. They might well be raised when we will come to the discussion of the electoral laws and the framing of the constituencies. I there...
9.123.124
Then I come to the amendment moved by Sardar Hukam Singh in which he suggests that provision ought to be made whereby the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes would be entitled to contest seats which are generally riot reserved for the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes. He said that the Drafting Committee has made a deliberate omiss...

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7.56.131
I accept the amendment.
7.56.25
Sir, I am sorry I cannot accept either of the two amendments: Mr. Kamath's amendment is really incorporated in the phraseology as it now stands; the word "Fundamental" occurs, as Mr. Kamath will find, in the very first Article of this part. Therefore his object that these principles should be treated as fundamental in already achieved by the wo...

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7.77.144
 : I cannot do it now. It was the business of those who move the amendment to make the thing fool-proof and knave-proof, but they did not.
7.77.4
"That after clause (5) of article 62, the following new clause be inserted:--'(5) (a) In the choice of his Ministers and the exercise of his other functions under this Constitution, the President shall be generally guided by the instructions set out in Schedule III-A, but the validity of anything done by the President shall not be called in que...

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3.20.260
Mr. President, Sir, I confess that I am considerably surprised at these amendments-both by Mr.Munshi as well as Mr.Tyagi, They have, I submit, given no reason why this clause 18 should be referred back to the Committee. The only reason in support of this proposal--one can sense--is that the rights of minorities should be relative, that is to say...
3.20.67
May I make a suggestion? We have heard the arguments of Sir AlladiKrishnaswamiAyyar who has said that according to his reading of the rulings of the Supreme Court of the United States, even if the Explanation was not there, the State would be permitted to have compulsory military service. Fortunately, for me I also happened to look into the very...

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9.122.166
    : The function of a member of the Public Service Commission is a general one. He cannot be there to protect the interests of any particular class. He shall have to apply his mind to the general question of finding out who is the best and the most efficient candidate for an appointment. The real protection, the real method of protection is on...
9.122.164
   The only point that remains for me to say anything about is the question that is raised about the Scheduled Castes and the Backward Classes. I think I might say that enough provision has been made, both in article 296 which we have to consider at a later stage and in article 10, for safeguarding the interests of what are called the Scheduled ...

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7.55.33
: The amendment moved by my friend Mr. Kunzru is an amendment which carries a great deal of my sympathy but unfortunately in the circumstances in which we stand, I am not in a position to accept the same. The arguments urged by my friend in supporting his amendment was that when I had stated originally in moving my amendment was inconsistent wit...
7.55.135
I may also point out to Mr. Kamath that in this respect we have also followed the phraseology contained in the Government of India Act 1935. I am sorry I have not had the time to examine all the sections of the Government of India Act but I have just, fortunately for myself, found one section which is 142-A where similar phraseology has been us...

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7.57.29
I oppose the amendment, Sir.
7.57.19
I move that this matter do stand over.

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7.69.196
The first point that I would like to submit to the House as to why the Drafting Committee thought it necessary to alter the language of paragraph 18 of the Fundamental rights is this. On reading the paragraph contained in the original Fundamental Rights, it will be noticed that the term "minority" was used therein not in the technical sense of ...
7.69.2
Sir, I move--     "That in clause (1) of article 23, for the words "script and culture" the words "script or culture" be substituted."

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9.117.141
Now I come to an exception. There are people who, having left India for Pakistan, have subsequently returned to India. Well, there again our rule is that anyone who returns to India is not to be deemed a citizen unless he satisfies certain special circumstances. Going to Pakistan and returning to India does not make any alteration in the genera...
9.117.137
With regard to the point that has been made by my Friend Prof. K.T. Shah that there ought to be positive prohibition in these articles limiting Parliament's authority to make law under article 6 not to give citizenship to the residents of those countries who deny citizenship to Indians resident there, I think that is a matter which might well b...

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7.53.162
Sir, I raise a point of order. My point of order is that this is not an amendment. Unless it changes the substance of the original proposition, it is not an amendment. I am trying to find out the reference in May's Parliamentary Practice. But I would like to raise this point at this moment. If my friend will forgive me, I think he is in the hab...
7.53.56
I do not accept the amendment.

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7.71.46
    With regard to the separation of the executive from the legislature, it is true that such a separation does exist in the Constitution of the United States; but if my friend, Prof. Shah, had read some of the recent criticisms of that particular provision of the Constitution of the United States, he would have noticed that many Americans thems...
7.71.97
  And I am just now informed that in the Urdu Draft, the word used is "Sardar". (Laughter).

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11.156.91
   : Before my honourable Friend proceeds further. I would like to point out that the words "and any failure to comply with such directions shall be deemed to be a failure to carry on the Government of the State in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution" have been omitted from article 371 which corresponds to the original article 30...
11.156.35
    But, Sir, I propose to say something more which will show that the Drafting Committee has really not travelled beyond the provisions as they were passed at the last session of the Constituent Assembly. I would ask my honourable Friend Pandit Kunzru to refer to article 280-A, clause (5), and article 306-B. Article 280-A, clause(5), and the pr...

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7.81.162
   Sir, I beg to move:     "That for the proviso to clause (3) of article 149, the following be substituted :--'Provided that where the total population of a State as ascertained at the last preceding census exceeds three hundred lakhs, the number of members in the Legislative Assembly of the State shall be on a scale of not more than one member...
7.81.56
     Sir, I should like to state to the House that the question of whether to have a second Chamber in the provinces or not was discussed by the Provincial Constitution Committee, which was appointed by this House. The decision of that Committee was that this was a matter which should be left to the decision of each province concerned. If any p...

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9.144.140
It is proposed to alter the clause in article 3 dealing with the reorganisation of the provinces and States. States in both Parts I and III will be brought on the same level. There is an amendment to the article and that difference is going to be eliminated and it will disappear.
9.144.155
Is this all necessary, Sir ?

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7.79.200
    Amendment No. 1426 for dropping the words of India may be put, Sir.
7.79.49
    I am not moving it.

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6.47.137
The answer is simple, After all, the power of adaptation will be exhausted by the 31st of March, What is to happen thereafter if the necessity for amending the existing constitution arose? Of course if the power of adaptation comes to an end, on the 1st of April and if our future Constitution also became operative on the 1st of April, the, prob...
6.47.181
Sir, if I may reply to this point. If the Honourable Mover will only refer to the beading of the chapter he will see that the chapter is called "Legislation for making provision as to the Constitution of India." These rules relate to no other Bill except the Bill amending the Constitution. Therefore the word "such" is absolutely unnecessary.

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7.79.185
   Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I accept the amendments Nos. 1417, 1426, 1431 of Prof. Shah, 1434 as amended by the mover of that amendment and as amended by the amendment No. 42 of List II and No. 43 of List II. Of the other amendments, on a careful examination, I find that there is only one amendment on which I need offer any reply. That is amendm...
7.79.49
    I am not moving it.

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7.67.31
This is only for the purpose of keeping symmetry in the language that we have used in the other articles.
7.67.30
(Bombay: General) Sir, I beg to move:  "That in clause (2) of article 19, for the word "preclude" the word "prevent" be substituted."

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1.7.27
Now, I come to the first part of the Resolution which includes the first four paragraphs. As I said, from the debate that has gone on in the House, this has become a matter of controversy. The controversy seems to be centred on the use of that word 'Republic'. It is centred on the sentence occurring in paragraph 4 "the sovereignty is derived fr...
1.7.30
These are weighty words which it would be perilous to ignore if there is anybody who has in his mind the project of solving the Hindu-Muslim problem by force, which is another name of solving it by war, in order that the Muslims may be subjugated and made to surrender to the Constitution that might be prepared without their consent.  This count...

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9.124.91
     With regard to the other arguments which have been used by my Friends Mr. Muniswami Pillai and M. Monomohon Das, I am sorry it is not possible to accept that amendment. Their proposal is that while they are prepared to leave the clause as it is, they propose to vest parliament with the power to alter this clause by further extension of the...
9.124.90
     Next, with regard to the question raised by Mr. Naziruddin Ahmad, one part of it has been, I think, met by the amendment moved by my Friend Mr. Krishnamachari which I also accept. I am not at all clear in my own mind at the present stage whether the words in the clause mean that the time-limit should begin to operate from the commencement ...

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9.140.2
 : Sir, I move for leave to introduce a Bill to abolish the jurisdiction of His Majesty in Council in respect of Indian appeals and petitions.
9.140.497
 No; no. It is not in today's Order Paper.

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10.150.37
 I have already moved that.
10.150.200
I would ask Mr. T. T. Krishnamachari to move the amendments on my behalf.

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7.82.97
     : No, Sir. I do not accept Mr. Kamath's amendment.
7.82.82
     : Mr. Vice-president, Sir, I do not think any, reply is called for.

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7.61.162
 Sir, the reason for bringing in this amendment is this: It will be noticed that in article 8 there are two expressions which occur. In sub-clause (1) of article 8, there occurs the phrase "laws in force", while in sub-clause(2) the words "any law" occur. In the original draft as submitted to this House, all that was done was to give the definit...
7.61.161
Sir, I move:     "That for clause (3) of Article 8, the following be substituted:--     (3) In this article--(a) the expression `law' includes any Ordinance, order, bye-law, rule, regulation, notification, custom, or usage having the force of law in the territory of India, or any part thereof;(b) the expression `laws in force' includes laws pas...

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3.21.118
I think that a clause somewhat on these lines is necessary and it will cover the case of people who are born in India, who will be the subjects of the Union, when the Union comes into being. Without this clause, large numbers of people will be de-nationalized. They will have no nationality at all. I, therefore, suggest that it may be as well to ...
3.21.117
is a point of great importance and we have to take this matter seriously. The difficulty that has arisen will be seen easily if one reads the very first sentence of the clause as drafted by the Committee. The draft says, 'every person born in the Union'. Obviously that has reference to future, those who will be born in the Union after the Union...

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11.158.5
   I propose to speak at the end. It is not the usual thing to speak now.
11.158.2
     Mr. President, Sir, I move :     " That the Constitution as settled by the Assembly be passed."(Cheers)

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4.27.171
It should not be concluded today.
4.27.72
The sentence will read now, "If the Bill is passed again by the legislature with or without amendments, he shall assent to it".

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10.145.17
      I think, Sir. that 10 to 1 will be all right.

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3.18.21
I do not wish to interrupt the speaker; but in dealing with clause 8(e), he is rather giving a wrong impression of the whole clause.

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10.152.314
     I have nothing to say.

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9.116.89
: But he has not even moved it! Oh, that proviso-yes, I have accepted it.
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