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Speaker

K.M. Munshi

Selected keyword

secularism

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10.151.48
Then there is another point that is also very relevant so far as this question is concerned. Supposing for the sake of argument we grant that the Sikh representatives agreed to forego every safeguard, is it to be understood that they did so because they were very keen to have their backward classes included in the Scheduled Castes ? Is then the...
10.151.35
My object is very clear. What I want is to restore the original proposal that had already been accepted by this House. I cannot understand why the Drafting Committee has thought it fit to bring about this change. So far as that article stood in its original form, it was considered as a safeguard for the minorities, and I must say that it was on...

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7.67.2
Sir, it has been repeated to our ears that ours is a secular State. I accepted this secularism in the sense that our State shall remain unconcerned with religion, and I thought that the secular State of partitioned India was the maximum of generosity of a Hindu dominated territory for its non-Hindu population. I did not of course know what exact...
7.67.112
It will be recorded in the proceedings. We shall now consider the amendments one by one. The question is:     "That in clause (1) of article 19, for the words 'practice and propagate religion' the words `and practise religion privately' be substituted.".

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8.91.197
Mr. Lari came forward and talked of cumulative votes. He talked of the Third Series of Constitutional Precedents. But he could have seen from the same Constitutional Presidents-time is short, otherwise I would have read out the portions-how the U.S.S.R. by article 123, Switzerland by article 49, Germany by article 136 Yugoslavia, Finland and so...
8.91.196
 : Mr. President, Sir, I have come to support the motion and to oppose the amendments moved by Mr. Ismail and Mr. Lari. In fact, after the speeches of so many of the Muslims friends who have themselves opposed the amendments, and of my predecessor who has just spoken, it was not very necessary that I should come forward to oppose it, but I have...

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3.20.211
But when we come to the other case, viz., where parents are converted and we have to consider the case of their children, then I think we come across what I might say a very hard rock. If you are going to say that, although parents may be converted because they are majors and above the age of 18, minors below the age of 18, although they are the...
3.20.208
With regard to children, there are three possible cases which can be visualised. First of all, there is the case of children with parents and guardians. There is the case of children who are orphans, who have no parents and no guardians in the legal sense of the word. Supposing you have this clause prohibiting the conversion of children below 18...

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7.68.176
: It is left to them. It is left to the community to make it compulsory or not. All that we do is to lay down that that community will not have the right to make it compulsory for children of communities which do not belong to the community which runs the school.
7.68.166
Therefore, by sub-clause (2) we are really achieving two purposes. One is that we are permitting a community which has established its institutions for the advancement of its religious or its cultural life, to give such instruction in the school. We have also provided that children of other communities who attend that school shall not be compel...

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7.73.306
: The question is:     "That article 49 as amended, be adopted." The motion was adopted.Article 49, as amended, was added to the Constitution.     The Assembly then adjourned till Ten of the Clock on Tuesday, the 28th December 1948.
7.73.293
There are people who believe that their conscience is enough of a sanction. They do not need God, an external force, as a sentinel or a watchman to act by their side. They think a solemn affirmation coming out of their conscience is quite enough of a sanction. If honourable Members have read the history of this matter which is embodied in the s...

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7.66.297
     Sir, We have declared the State to be a Secular State. For obvious and for good reasons we have so declared. Does it not mean that we have nothing to do with any religion? (You know that propagation of religion brought India into this unfortunate state and India had to be divided in to Pakistan and India). If Islam had not come to impose it...
7.66.296
     I would have been very glad if I had a chance to speak generally on article 19 and not move this amendment. To my mind, if article 13 of this Draft Constitution is a Charter for liberty, article 19 is a Charter for Hindu enslavement. I do really feel that this is the most disgraceful Article, the blackest part of the Draft Constitution. I b...

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2.13.72
So far as other points are concerned, I am not immediately interested in them, but what strikes me with great grief, is the fact that difficulty should have arisen amongst ourselves and inside India. I shall not specify the different parties but is seems to me that so far as the difficulties of minorities, whether major or minor, are concerned,...
2.13.81
We have, thus, before us a problem of such complex and vast nature. We have, the problem of antagonism between the Muslims and the Hindus, the antagonism between Hindus and Hindus, the problem of the Christians, the Anglo-Indians, the Depressed Classes, the Backward Classes; and lastly, there is the problem of the rights of women.

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1.6.79
I think that if in furtherance of the objects of that Resolution, some action is suggested, that certainly is within the scope of the amendment. For instance, you have allowed in Dr. Jayakar's resolution certain things about the Muslim League and other things which are not contained in the original Resolution moved by the Hon'ble Pandit Jawahar...
1.6.71
The amendment of Dr. Hari Singh Gour would make the Resolution as a whole read as follows:     "This Assembly declares its firm and solemn resolve that the Constitution to be prepared by this Assembly for the future governance of India, shall be for a free and democratic Sovereign State; but with a view to securing in shaping such a constitutio...

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9.144.170
'Bharat' or 'Bharat Varsha' is and has been the name of our country for ages according to our ancient history and tradition and in fact this word inspires enthusiasm and courage in its; I would, therefore, submit that we should have no hesitation at all in accepting this word. It will be a matter of great shame for us if we do not accept this w...
9.144.154
should be the watch-words of their lives and that they should awake and arise to promote the welfare of mortals and gods and to show to the world the path of knowledge. When we pronounce this word, we are reminded of Shankaracharya, who gave a new vision to the world. When we pronounce this word, we are reminded of the mighty arms of Bhagwan Ra...

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1.7.55
I do not want to take more time; but before the chit comes to me asking me to stop, I appeal to you that you should pass this Resolution not as a resolution but as a pledge with full sense of responsibility of what you do and go forward in the manner of a free country.
1.7.54
If the British Government adhering to the statements issued in the last few days, tried not to enact a new Government of India Act, in the light of the decisions of this Constituent Assembly, I tell them that their efforts in this respect are doomed to failure. They have always tried to keep India and other countries under their subjugation by ...

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11.163.150
   I may mention also one thing which may not have been realised by many Members of my own community. By giving up the reservations, whatever we might have lost we have gained tremendously, because that has mainly contributed to the establishment of and the making it a fact, the secular character of the State on which depends our very existence ...
11.163.149
     There has been provision made in the Constitution for the freedom of several languages and cultures, providing at the same time, for a national language. That should have logically resulted in more autonomy and more freedom of the States, making for one powerful nation. The several languages and cultures would have been guaranteed and made ...

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9.139.233
I, therefore, submit, Sir, that the numerals are even today in use in Devanagari just as they were to be found in the Sanskrit Rigveda and Yajurveda. I, therefore, fail to understand the basis of this discussion about numerals here. It is insinuated against us that we are quarreling over a Very minor matter and that our insistence upon the Deva...
9.139.230
When we have no other option but to adopt Hindi in this manner, I would submit that there should be no dispute about its script, for it has already its script-a script in which the 'Rigveda' was written-a script in which 'Hanuman Chalisa' is written-the script in which all the books from the Rigveda down to the Hanuman Chalisa of Tulsidas have ...

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DCS.41
40. Denominational and communal educational institutions are forbidden except for the purposes of the study of religion and oriental learning.
DCS.35
34. The use of religious institutions for political purposes and the existence of political organisation on religious basis is forbidden.

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7.58.150
There is one important consideration which we have to bear in mind--and I want my Muslim friends to realise this--that the sooner we forget this isolationist outlook on life, it will be better for the country. Religion must be restricted to spheres which legitimately appertain to religion, and the rest of life must be regulated, unified and mod...
7.58.148
Now look at the disadvantages that you will perpetuate if there is no Civil Code. Take for instance the Hindus. We have the law of Mayukha applying in some parts of India; we have Mithakshara in others; and we have the law-Dayabagha in Bengal. In this way even the Hindus themselves have separate laws and most of our Provinces and States have st...

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5.43.105
We are now going to be free and we have paid a price for this freedom; we have Pakistan on the one side and the Union of India or Hindustan on the other side. There has been too much talk of treating the Muslims as aliens in Hindustan or the Hindus as aliens in Pakistan. Will this institution of separate electorates encourage the disruptive tend...
5.43.104
So I ask you whether you want the majority to be cut off in such a way that the majority will not be answerable to anybody belonging to your community and no one in the majority will have to care for your sentiments or for the reactions of his acts on you and your associates? Nothing will be more harmful than that. And do you not see the signs t...

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5.46.145
In view of the difficulties that have cropped up, and I submit that they are genuine, it is necessary that the clause should receive further consideration. The way in which I put the matter is this. You have got three classes of institutions: first, an institution which is maintained by the States, second, an institution which is recognized by t...
5.46.137
Sir, may I strongly support the suggestion by Dr. Mohan Sinha Mehta. It is very desirable, in view of the importance of the subject, that this clause should be referred back to the Advisory Committee. I do not want to labour the point, but in order to show that it deals with a question of vital importance, I wish to point out that if we allow th...

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1.9.105
From this message it is obvious that the power comes from the people. In the Indian Republic there will be no barriers based on caste or community. The Harijans will be safe in a Republican State of the Indian Union. I visualise that the underdogs will be the rulers of the Indian Republic. I therefore appeal to the Harijan Delegates of this Con...
1.9.99
Sir, in America we have really fifty different nationalities of all kinds and all grades, but the moment the American war of independence was fought and won, they never thought of thinking their freedom with religion, and this is why America has become now the master race of the world. And India, let me tell you, will equally be not the master ...

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9.117.4
The securing of a chance permit from the Deputy High Commissioner's office or any other authority should not carry with it such a prize thing as citizenship of India, or that the holders be considered to be sons of Bharat Mata. I will cite one instance. Meos from Gurgaon, Bharatpur and Alwar not very long time ago, on the instigation of the Mus...
9.117.1
  : Sir, in the 'definition of citizenship' which covers fairly extensive ground the view-point of Hindu and Sikh refugees has been met to some extent by the Drafting Committee whom I congratulate on that account. But, as usual, a weak sort of secularism has crept in and an unfair partiality has been shown to those who least deserve it. I was s...

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9.125.95
Secondly, I am quite clear in my own mind that secularism is the negation of all religion. Whatever statesmen and politicians may say on the ground of expediency, I am quite clear in my own mind that the concept of religion and the concept of secularism are poles asunder. There is no meeting ground between these two.
9.125.94
  Mr. President, Sir, I rise to endorse the sentiments expressed by Sardar Bhopinder Singh Man. I am opposed to the idea of dragging God in the Third Schedule. I am opposed to this because even those persons who swear by the name of God do not do everything in this world in the name of God. Where is the necessity of asking a man, however religio...

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9.116.220
I want by my amendment to confine the right of acquiring citizenship just after residing for six months, at the date of commencement of this only to displaced persons, and others who come under article 5A can very well acquire the right of citizenship after remaining in India for five years. I do not really understand the object of article 5A wh...
9.116.211
Then my honourable Friend, Dr. Deshmukh has suggested an amendment to this very article wherein he wants that the Sikhs and Hindus wherever they are born and whenever they desire shall be entitled to become citizens of India. When he has mentioned names of communities, I would like to point out to you, Sir, and the Members of this House, that th...

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2.16.94
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen. I trust that you will accept in advance an apology because I am going to place before you a history of the way in which from a Christian Communalist I became a Christian Indian Nationalist. It was merely an accident that brought me into politics. It was a case of zid and nothing else. Some people had egged ...
2.16.93
Sir, it is quite possible that he might have one day to preside over the deliberations of this House and as Father Jerome has said it, I am sure, if it comes to that, he will do his duty as well, Sir, as you have had the honour of doing it during the time this Assembly has been in action. I congratulate Dr. H. C. Mookherjee, and in congratulati...

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SR.132
9. Finance and Taxation—-(a) to levy and collect village taxes for special purposes. Payments in kind and collective manuallabour for village projects shall be encouraged.(b) to collect private donations on social and religious occasions.(c) to see that proper accounts of income and expenditure are maintained. These shall be open to public inspe...
SR.125
2. Recreation—   (a) to provide for Akhada, Gymnasium and playgrounds. Swadeshi games and sports shall be encouraged.   (b) to arrange Art and Craft Exhibitions from time to time.   (c) to celebrate collectively the important festivals of all communities.   (d) to organise seasonal fairs.   (e) to conduct bhajan and kirtan mandals.(f) to encoura...

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1.3.89
I know the difficulties which I shall have to face in the discharge of the heavy responsibilities which I have undertaken on your behest. I know the work of the Constituent Assembly is beset with various kinds of obstacles, but I know too that in the discharge of my duties, I can count upon your unstinted support and the same kind of generosity...
1.3.50
This Constituent Assembly, to my mind, is a celebration of India's coming of age and as such it ought to be a subject matter over which all India, Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Parsees, Scheduled Classes and all, ought to join hands and work with one sole idea: of achieving, independency as early and as soon as it possibly can be obtained.

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2.12.40
Here are the two alternatives. Accept the Constituent Assembly. Take its findings. Find out whether there are adequate safeguards for minorities or not. If they are there, give them the force of law and you may get cooperation. If, after all these conditions are fulfilled, you still try to make out that something is lacking, the British will be...
2.12.37
That is what Mr. Alexander said. There was some difficulty about the interpretation of the grouping. Much against its will, the Congress has accepted His Majesty's Government's interpretation. The only two clauses that remain are adequate safeguards for minorities, and a treaty on the problems which arise out of transfer of power. The Constituen...

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9.128.39
      : Any way, interference by the Centre or governmental interference in yogic matters. I suppose he referred to the observations I made with regard to the yogic institutes in India. What I had pointed out yesterday--I am sorry my Friend Mr. Santhanam did not understand it-was that there are certain institutes today run by private agencies wh...
9.128.37
     Taking the first amendment first, let me try in my own humble manner to dispose of the objection raised by my honourable Friend Mr. Santhanam. He chose to remark that yesterday I had pleaded against governmental interference........

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7.77.33
   Sir, I would respectfully follow your advice. I do not want to make either any provocative statements or to dilate more upon the topic. I have already mentioned what I wanted to mention, viz., the fact that a particular member belongs to a particular community ought not to be a ground for stating that a particular argument has no value or sho...
7.77.26
: That is right, Sir. I entirely agree. I only wanted to make that point clear; that is all. I only wished to mention that the discussion in this House should be kept at a higher level than what it would be if such kind of reasoning is adopted for opposing amendments of members of minority communities.

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6.47.51
Sir, it is true that a very large proportion of the population in East Punjab have gone to West Punjab. In the same way a very large number of non-Muslims in West Punjab have gone over to East Punjab. They must nave representation in this House, and as far as that matter goes, it is quite a justificable demand and I do not think anyone here can ...
6.47.44
The position, Sir, is this. We have got the statistics. According to the notional division, the number of Mussalmans on this side was 3.8 million, Sikhs 2.1 million and General 5.6 million. After the Radcliffe, Award, the figures were slightly altered. Instead of 3.8 million Muslims, it was 4.4 million Muslims, instead of 2.1 million Sikhs it wa...

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7.50.171
The appeal which I wish to make to the House is in connection with a subject which has been touched upon by a number of speakers today and yesterday. It is in connection with reservation of seats in the legislatures for the minorities--Muslims, Sikhs, Scheduled Castes and others. My friend Mr.Karimuddin sounded a very healthy note yesterday when...
7.50.148
I would not like to go deep into the question of centralisation and decentralisation of power, but I would like to draw the attention of the House to one matter. Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation always taught us that whether in the political or in the economic sphere decentralisation engenders a power which is much greater than other kin...

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DC.22
22. (1) No religious instruction shall be provided by the State in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds:Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to an educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which requires that religious instruction shall...
DC.35
35. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. .

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10.154.555
Sir, one word more and I have done. I think the amendment proposed by Shrimati Purnima Banerji should be accepted, because it really describes the true position and as such it should be enunciated in the Preamble. On formal occasion, on great occasions, on important occasions, we have to remind our selves that we are here as the representatives...
10.154.554
Again I come to the great doctrine of fraternity which is allied with democracy. It means that we are all sons of the same God, as the religious would say, but as the mystic would say, that there is one life pulsating through us all, or as the Bible says. "We are one of another". There can be no fraternity without this. So I want this House to ...

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11.161.180
Thirdly, Gandhiji wanted a secular State, that religion should be a personal affair and that the State should have nothing to do with it, that persons professing any religion must have absolute freedom and should be equal in law and in the eyes of the State.
11.161.27
The Fourth significant point is the secular character of this Constitution. When communal passion was raging throughout the whole country, the framers of this Constitution refused to yield to the passion of the moment and they insisted that the State that they are going to set up must be secular and democratic- based on adult franchise. Every ci...

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7.63.106
 I think, therefore, that if it was made clear by the addition of the words that I have suggested, namely, that no one not professing a particular religion need be associated with managing the affairs of that institution it would suffice. It would serve the purpose, if such purpose is to be served, of the original Foundation; and at the same tim...
7.63.105
 On the other hand, there seems to me to be a pull--somewhat sub-conscious pull, if I may say so--in favour of particular religions or denominations, whose institutions, whose endowments, whose foundations, are sought to be protected and kept exclusive by making exceptions of this kind. After all, this clause (4) is an exception to the main prin...

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7.79.11
   Sir, in the general election and according to the present electoral system if the pendulum swings in favour of communism, all schemes of development will be lost and if it swings in favour of communalism, the secular nature of the State will be lost; and if the minorities are neglected, whether they are political, or communal, and crushed and...
7.79.7
     The system which I regard as the best is the system of proportional representation. It is not based on religious grounds and it applies to all minorities, political, religious or communal. There are three objections to this system, which are generally argued and debated. The first is that there would be very large constituencies and it woul...

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7.79.11
   Sir, in the general election and according to the present electoral system if the pendulum swings in favour of communism, all schemes of development will be lost and if it swings in favour of communalism, the secular nature of the State will be lost; and if the minorities are neglected, whether they are political, or communal, and crushed and...
7.79.7
     The system which I regard as the best is the system of proportional representation. It is not based on religious grounds and it applies to all minorities, political, religious or communal. There are three objections to this system, which are generally argued and debated. The first is that there would be very large constituencies and it wou...

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7.76.151
I submit that Mr. Mahboob Ali Baig has advanced three main arguments in favour of his amendment. Firstly, he says that Parliamentary democracy is an evil and it is no democracy at all. I am surprised to hear such a categorical statement made on the floor of this House. We know that Parliamentary democracy has been on the anvil of experience dur...
7.76.150
 : Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I join my honourable Friend Shri Mahavir Tyagi, in opposing the amendment that has been moved by Mr. Mahboob Ali Baig. Mr. Mahboob Ali Baig has put forward an amendment which unfortunately shows a tendency on the part of some of the Members in this House to get back somehow the spirit of separatism and division by on...

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11.165.180
     Finally let me ask you:- "What after all is a constitution?" It is a grammar of politics, if you like, it is a compass to the political mariner. However good it may be, by itself it is inanimate, it is insensitive, and it cannot work by itself. It is of use to us only in the measure in which we are able to use it, because it has tremendous...
11.165.172
     And next, you have also been able to remove untouchability which had divided one section of Hindus from the rest. Mahatmaji began his fast unto death on the 20th September 1932 and worked a miracle in the space of six days. Now we have removed untouchability not merely in name, not merely in word and spirit, but also in law, so that nobody...

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7.62.183
The question is:     "That for article 11, the following article be substituted:--     '11. No one shall on account of his religion or caste be treated or regarded as an 'untouchable'; and its observance in any form may be made punishable by law.' "
7.62.47
The Member who has given notice of amendment No. 276 may now move the second part of it, viz., to insert the words "discrimination" and "and public worship" after the words 'liability' and 'public resort' respectively.

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5.44.200
It is quite true that we are not accepting the report which has been sent to us by the Advisory Committee. We have amended certain of the clauses in the schedule and all those amended clauses represent our decisions. In stating the decisions which we have made, we might add one or two sentences by way of preamble "with a view to develop a homoge...
5.44.89
It is a back door method of bringing in separate electorates, which the House did not accept yesterday. Sir, we have stood aside helplessly while artificially this problem of religious differences--an echo of medieval times, has been fostered and nurtured and enhanced by tile method of political devices such as separate electorates in order to s...

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SM.36
That the Authority of the Legislature and the Executive of the Union as well as of every State throughout India shall be subject to the following limitations: It shall not be competent for any Legislature or Executive in India to pass a law or issue an order, rule or regulation so as to violate the following rights of the subjects of the State:...
SM.30
17. The State shall not recognise any religion as State religion.

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1.8.34
Having said so much about the Resolution, I come to the question of certain statements made in the House of Commons. Sir, you know that a discussion on India has been thrust on the British Parliament by the Conservative Party. The leader of that party and a number of other important members of the party have contributed to the discussion, altho...
1.8.25
I want to speak on only one more point, which has impressed me from the speech of Viscount Simon in the House of Lords. Viscount Simon has said that this Constituent Assembly, if it carries on the work of framing a constitution for India, will 'threaten' India 'with a Hindu Raj'. I was very much surprised when I saw these words in a newspaper th...

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1.5.29
The differences on which the British harp upon have been created by them. They were not in existence before their advent. Hindus and Muslims had a common civilization and lived amicably. Can the British say that the situation now obtained in India is not of their creation and is not backed by them? Those who are opposing us under the instigatio...
1.5.28
As I have already said we have got this of making a constitution after passing through many ordeals. We obtained some privileges in 1935. We continued the fight until we came to 1942. Now, as a result of these struggles, we have gathered here to frame a constitution and we do not yet know what will be the result of our efforts. Our path is stil...

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KR.2
1. Fundamental rights of the people such as i. Freedom of association and combination. ii. Freedom of speech and press, iii. Freedom of conscience and the free profession and practice of religion, subject to public order and morality, iv. No disability to attach to any person of religion, caste or creed In regard to public employment, office of...
KR.3
2. Religious neutrality on part of the state.

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9.138.397
Ours is a secular State and we all are one on this point. We treat every religion equally. We do not want to stand in the way of the development of any religion. But we do admit the fact, that in spite of our secularism there are different cultures in the country. There is Muslim population in China and Russia too but there is no difference at ...
9.138.484
If we recognize the secular State with all its implications, then I would submit that secular State is an assertion and no assertion can be true unless it has for its support some arguments and reasons. It we really believe in the secularity of the State then we should not consider such matters with a narrow outlook. And we should not give up t...

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11.164.203
  There is also another good point in it, and that is the setting up of the secular State. There is no doubt everything has been done to make the State secular, although quite a number of criticisms have been made of it, on the basis that it is not Indian, meaning that it is not based on the Hindu religion. In that connection I would say that no...
11.164.144
Sir, under this Constitution, the foundations of a secular democracy have been well and truly laid, and if we are true to ourselves and to our traditions, and our leader Mahatma Gandhi, we can safety hope that we will march from progress to progress and convert this Constitution into a blessing for this ancient land.

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9.119.101
My Friend Mr. Kamath mentioned, for example, that he would like to add religion. This is the one subject on which I am afraid I have never been able to agree with Mr. Kamath. Representation of religion in a body of this kind seems to me to be utterly uncalled for and out of place. However, it is also a category that might have been suggested, t...
9.119.66
Coming to the suggestion of two new categories, that is to say, religion and philosophy, I should like to plead with the House that in spite of repeated admonitions to us that ours is and will remain a secular State, I am convinced that the secularity of the State cannot act as a bar to men of religion or philosophy. After all the only argument...

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8.92.37
    Sir, there is a feeling, particularly among journalists from other countries, that today the minorities in India are being oppressed, that minority representative either do not, in fact, represent the minorities or they are petrified by a sense of fear and regimentation and do not speak of or express that fear which is in their hearts. I hav...
8.92.3
    Now, if communal fracas has played such havoc. I do not understand why some want communal safeguards. How can there be any kind of communal safeguard now? It was present in the days when the British were here so that they could play their own game. Now they have gone there would be no cause for safeguard of anybody's rights. It has been our ...

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9.143.397
     : Mr. President, I come to support the amendments that have been moved by the Honourable Dr. Ambedkar. These amendments deal with the definition of Scheduled Castes. As far as I can see he has made it clear that, according to the second part of it, the President on the 26th January 1950 will publish a list of such communities that come und...
9.143.227
     The Privy Council might have given a lead in many matters, but so far as social legislation was concerned, we have our own grievances against it. It wanted to fossilise ancient practices. It considered many things under the personal law of the Hindus obsolete. An Indian Supreme Court would not have taken that view. Many things could have b...

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7.81.185
     I, therefore, submit, as was observed by me two days back that either a fresh list of electors should be so prepared and the population should be ascertained from that source if that is possible, but my humble submission is that it will be more or less a conjecture. The right thing would be to take a fresh census of these two Provinces bef...
7.81.184
     This is a very simple amendment and I need not take the time of the House for pressing it. The exodus has resulted in the variation of the proportion of the population in the Punjab and West Bengal and the population concerned is not so trifling as to be ignored. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary that fresh census should be taken. If f...

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2.15.64
The next group of six names are those of Sikhs:
2.15.22
So, the House has already accepted the fundamentals of this Resolution and it has done so unanimously. It is a matter which should hearten the minorities. The essence of these rights has already been conceded and conceded voluntarily and unanimously by all the Members of this House. I hope every effort will be made in this Advisory Committee to ...

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7.52.15
 Wherever you go, to the Mother of Parliaments or to other British Institutions, you find invariably the Church associated with them, with their universities, with their Parliament, with their Courts of Law and so on. Although I do not want to impose our religion in our institutions to that extent, I do plead that we should protect our culture, ...
7.52.13
 One more point, Sir. We have been talking too much of a secular State. What is meant by a secular State? I understand that a secular State may not allow religion to play a very important part to the exclusion of other activities of the State. But we must make it clear that the ancient traditions and culture of this country will be fully protect...

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7.53.31
The secularity of the state must be stressed in view not only of the unhappy experiences we had last year and in the years before and the excesses to which, in the name of religion, communalism or sectarianism can go, but I intend also to emphasis by this description the character and nature of the state which we are constituting today, which wo...
7.53.30
Next, as regards the Secular character of the State, we have been told time and again from every platform, that ours is a secular State. If that is true, if that holds good, I do not see why the term could not be added or inserted in the constitution itself, once again, to guard against any possibility of misunderstanding or misapprehension. The...

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7.60.51
Mr.Vice-President, Sir, it is certainly the duty of the State to protect all places of public worship such as Gurdwaras, Churches, Temples, Mosques and also graveyards and burning ghats. The general law of the land - the penal law - has made ample provision for this. The Honourable mover of this amendment wants three things to be done and they ...
7.60.47
Today, we are framing the constitution of our great country and the eyes of every individual of our great country are fixed on this Assembly to see what we are doing and what we are granting for them. At this important and historical period, Sir, I have moved my amendment, a simple amendment by which I want that the State should be responsible f...

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7.49.163
My next point is regarding reservation of seats for minorities. I have a strong feeling about it. Reservation of seats today has absolutely no meaning (cheers). Reservation of seats for Muslims can have absolutely no justification. After having divided the country on basis of two-nation theory with all its implications after having provided in t...
7.49.99
Lastly, I wish to endorse the sentiment expressed by Dr. Ambedkar when he commended the provisions on behalf of the minorities. I know that it is an unsavoury subject (after what India has gone through) to talk of minorities or in terms of minority problems. And I do not propose to do that I do not propose to commend these minority provisions, b...

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7.65.179
We must all remember--including Members of the Muslim community who have spoken on this subject, though one can appreciate their feelings very well--that sovereignty is always limited, no matter even if you assert that it is unlimited, because sovereignty in the exercise of that power must reconcile itself to the sentiments of different communit...
7.65.40
Mr. Vice-President, Sir, there is no denying the fact that this article is the very life of the Draft Constitution. Without this article the Constitution will be a dead letter. It must also be understood that the Rights contemplated under article 13 are admittedly inalienable rights and the point involved is whether these rights can be delegated...

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7.69.59
 While in sub-clause (a) of clause (3) of article 23,obviously minorities based on religion and community have been recognised, my amendment recognises only minorities based on language. I feel, Sir, that in a secular state minorities based on religion or community should not be recognised. If they are given recognition then I submit that we can...

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11.160.96
   :Mr. President, we the people of this country have secured our independence and freedom - We are going to have a Republic of our own as also a Democratic State. We have been assured that during our present life we shall be provided with economic prosperity and social progress. But, Sir, a question yet remains still unsolved. I do not find in ...

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7.51.9
One thing with regard to minority rights I am bound to say. There is nowhere any mention of provisions which safeguard the personal law of the people. You know, Sir, in India, at least, people of several communities are governed by personal laws based on their religion. It is possible to legislate with regard to personal laws also. That would go...

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7.61.51
Take, for instance, the amendments that have been suggested to the Preamble to our Constitution. There are various amendments invoking God. Perhaps, the President advised by the Drafting Committee, or the Consultative Committee, or some other persons in high places, might select one of these amendments. But if you peruse them and scrutinise the...

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4.28.102
Mr. President, Sir, I rise to support the Resolution before the House, moved by our revered leader Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Sir, this is the Flag under which we have during the last sixty years marched on and have at last reached victory. We are proud of this Flag. In it there are three colours and these three colours representthe three communi...

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11.162.31
    One great merit of this Constitution I consider is that the people of this country are not going to have a Constitution very much different from what they are familiar with during the last ten or twelve years. With the exception of responsibility at the Centre it is essentially the Act of 1935. I do not mean this, for the moment at any rate,...

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4.32.32
Sir, there was a discussion at the time of the passing of the recommendations of the Provincial Committee regarding this issue but that decision is not binding when we are considering the Union Constitution. My submission is that the parliamentary system which is functioning in India under the 1935 Act has miserably failed as far as the Local Se...

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5.36.10
Mr. President, many years ago we had made a tryst with destiny itself. We had taken a pledge, a vow. Now the time has come to redeem it. But perhaps the pledge has not yet been redeemed fully though stages have been reached in that direction. We have almost attained independence. At such a moment, it is only appropriate that we take a new pledge...

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NR.4
4. (i) All powers of government and all authority, legislative, executive and judicial, are derived from the people and the same shall be exercised in the Commonwealth of India through the organisations established by or under, anddue process of this constitution. (ii) No person shall be deprived of his liberty, nor shall his dwelling or proper...

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CIB.7
6. Religions of India. All religions, creeds and faiths are allowed in the Empire, and the modes of worship may either be domestic, private or public.

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PS.8
We hold it to be a crime against man and God to submit any longer to a rule that has caused this fourfold disaster to our country. We recognize, however, that the most effective way of gaining our freedom is not through violence. We will therefore prepare ourselves by withdrawing, so far as we can, all voluntary association from the British Gov...

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CB.13
7. (a) No person shall be deprived of his liberty, nor shall his dwelling or property be entered, sequestered, confiscated, save in accordance with law and by duly constituted Courts of Law. (b) Freedom of conscience and the free profession and practice of religion are, subject to public order or morality, hereby guaranteed to every person.(c) T...
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