Definition of State
Equality
forced labour
Reservation
Constitutional remedies
right to property
minority rights
religious education
freedom of religion
child labour
untouchability
due process
personal liberty
right to life
freedom of speech
right to freedom
abolition of titles
equality of opportunity
Discrimination
preventive detention
double jeopardy
union list
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taxation
residuary power
union of states
kashmir
seventh schedule
state list
emergency
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powers of president
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judicial review
public health
gender
international relations
separation of powers
protection of monuments
cow slaughter
social justice
compulsory education
cottage industry
public assistance
local government
panchayat
natural resources
enforceability
proportional representation
separate electorates
election commission
integration of states
universal adult suffrage

Speaker

K.T. Shah

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7.73.116
In all his arguments I did not hear anything to show that the proposition that I am advancing is in itself wrong.
7.73.115
The fact, moreover, that no other Constitution contains any such provision is no reason, in my opinion, why, under the guidance of such a genius as Dr. Ambedkar, we should not break new ground. We might as well make our own precedents which Americans may copy as we have copied this from the English or Anglo-Saxon races. Why should Dr. Ambedkar ...

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7.71.109
    or alternatively,"(1) The executive authority, power and functions of Government shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him in accordance with the Constitution and the law with the advice and help of such ministers, officers or servants of the State as may be deemed necessary by him."
7.71.49
  Can I speak a few words in reply, Sir? This is a new article, and not an amendment.

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8.86.183
: Sir, I move:      "That in sub-clause (b) of clause (2) of article 69, after the words 'the Houses' the words 'over a period not exceeding three months' be added."   
8.86.186
I also move:     "That after clause (2) of article 69, the following be inserted :-     '(3) If at any time the President is unable or unwilling to summon Parliament for more than three months after the prorogation or dissolution of the House of the People and there is in the opinion of the Prime Minister a National Emergency he shall request t...

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7.78.58
     Moreover, "science, literature and education"--are mentioned each separately by name. These are, once more not logically divided one from another. There, again, I really fail to understand what should be the purpose of this separate enumeration. For, consider this. If by "education" it is intended to include both "Art and Science", through...
7.78.66
     Accordingly it seems to me that this classification is not quite logical. It also offends against the principle, at least in my eyes, of the symmetry of the legislative body, by including in it the element of nomination. For these two main reasons I think the whole clause should be deleted, and substituted by something different which Dr. ...

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8.93.33
    It is admitted, Sir, it is common knowledge, it is a fact not denied by the honorable the Mover of this resolution, that that is the correct name of the State. And those at any rate who remember the campaign of the present Prime Minister of the State in connection with 'Quit Kashmir' will realize that in the sequence of events that have happ...
8.93.29
    I have, perhaps to my own misfortune, been associated with this matter even after the developments of the last few years; and in the course of this argument, I shall try and place before you, Sir, certain considerations which I trust will show you, that if I say anything on the subject I am not saying it from merely superficial newspaper hea...

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7.74.308
    Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move:     "That in sub-clause (c) of clause (3) of article 55, after the words 'Council of States' the following be added:--'and is not disqualified by reason of any conviction for treason, or any offence against the safety, security or integrity of the State, or any violation of the Constitution, or has bee...
7.74.97
     The point I have made is that the Resolution convicting the President on impeachment must be passed and adopted by not only one but by both Houses. It is in conformity with the general scheme of the amendments which I have suggested that one House should start the proceedings, the other should investigate and pronounce its judgment embodied...

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7.68.209
:  Sir, I beg to move:   "That after article 22, the following new article be inserted :--  '22-A. All privileges, immunities or exemptions of heads of religious organisations shall be abolished' ."
7.68.113
I still believe that it could not be really the intention of the authors of this clause; and this proviso which would permit any such irregularity or exception should be made explicit in the way I am trying by this amendment to do. I trust that commonsense, if not legal sense, will assert itself; and the substance, if not the actual form, of my...

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7.57.69
The civilised cannibal of our time, the blood-sucker, is the exploiter who is highly honoured, who is often titled, who is very fully represented in this House also, and is therefore able to dictate to you, and inspire you in innumerable ways, as to how you shall provide for his safety in the Constitution itself, so that he could get a new lease...
7.57.55
It is not enough to provide only for a sort of vague State control over them as the original clause does; it is not enough merely to say that they could be so utilised as to "sub serve the common good," every word of which is vague, undefined and undefinable, and capable of being twisted to such a sense in any court of law, before any tribunal b...

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7.79.24
     The first is to avoid a maximum number of representatives being fixed by the constitution for the People's House of Representatives. It is, I think, not in accord with the correct principle of popular representation that it must be the people's voice which must be the final authority in the governance of a country calling itself a democrac...
7.79.40
   Mr. Vice-President, I beg to move:     "That the following be added after the words 'the States' in sub-clause (b) of clause (5) of article 67:--            'and Territories directly governed by the Centre'."

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7.79.53
    Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I move:     "That in sub-clause (b) of clause (5) of article 67, the words 'divided, grouped or' be deleted."     "That in sub-clause (b) of clause (5) of article 67, after the word 'constituencies', the following be added :--'so that each State being constituent part of the Union, or Territory governed directly by t...
7.79.32
     My second point is in relation to the scheme of voting. There are, in later clauses, some other amendments which I have tabled, and which when they come up, I will discuss. I will, therefore, not take up the time of the House at this moment.

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8.102.187
     But it is necessary in my opinion-in view of past experience that some such safeguard be inserted, lest the tendency we all have to spend money freely be utilised to our own disadvantage. Sir, I move.
8.102.183
     The amended clause would read:     "A bill which, if enacted and brought into operation, would involve expenditure from the revenues of India outside the frontiers of India in war-like operations shall not be considered or passed by either House of Parliament unless the President has recommended to that House the consideration of the Bill." 

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8.97.342
: Sir, I move:"That in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) of article 167, after the word `profit' the following be inserted:`or contract of building or of supply of any article, or is a shareholder in any joint stock company which has such a contract of building or of supply of any article.'"
8.97.120
: I do not wish to move it.Article 150

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9.116.137
Sir, here is a point, which, may I say with all respect, does not seem to me to be sufficiently borne in mind by  the Drafting Committee; and perhaps the amendment of the kind that I have suggested, or some other amendment  in that sense may be necessary to cover that position. I frankly confess, with the views that have been expressed from the ...
9.116.142
Sir, it is an unfortunate fact that, for whatever reasons, we are still members of the so-called Commonwealth of Nations dominated by Britain our former exploiter. In the Commonwealth of Nations, even though theoretically we are supposed to be equal members, equality is shown more in exclusiveness by some, and maintaining their superiority of th...

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9.137.160
Mention has been made by one of the previous speakers in the course of this debate, of slavery the right to own human beings, prevailing in the Southern States of the United States which was abolished at the cost of a civil war. That form of property had to be abolished, and to the best of my recollection, without any compensation. True, compen...
9.137.176
Similarly, in the case of pending Bills or Bills which have been passed one. year before or at any time before this Constitution comes into force,, there should be no need, in my opinion, for any reservation, for the approval or the assent of the supreme executive authority in the land and create a kind of tension between the Central authority,...

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7.76.100
It may be,--it has often happened,--that only a particular Minister is unwelcome on a particular occasion; or that a particular policy of Government is unwelcome. Now, if only a particular Minister is unwelcome, I personally think it is undesirable to sacrifice the whole Cabinet under the doctrine of collective responsibility, which comes on la...
7.76.113
 : Sir, I beg to move:     "That at the end of clause (2) of article 61, the words 'except by the High Court of Parliament when trying a President under section 50' be inserted."

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7.66.279
   Mr. Vice-President, I beg to move-     "That the following proviso be added to clause (1) of article 19:"Provided that no propaganda in favour of any one religion, which is calculated to result in change of faith by the individuals affected, shall be allowed in any school or college or other educational institution, in any hospital or asylum,...
7.66.287
     I know, Sir, this is liable to excite strong feeling. There are religions which are professedly proselytising. There are religions which leave the matter of religion to every person's own conscience, and do not indulge in proselytising. Whatever that be, without quarrelling with the freedom of preaching one's religion, I hold that it is the...

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7.77.69
 : I may have forgotten. I am not blaming the office. The form is one which I have read on the former occasion, Sir, I have not got that paper here, but I can say from memory.
7.77.215
: Then I will move this at that time.

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7.54.4
I think this is a very simple amendment. It tries to include within the territories of the Union not only those which are at present in it, or which, under the provisions of this Article, come under its scope; but also those which after the Constitution is passed may agree to join, or accede to, or merge with, the Union. I confess that I am not...
7.54.14
Mr. Vice-President, Sir, this amendment which stands in my name is as follows:     "That the following proviso be added to article 1:            'Provided that within a period not exceeding ten years of the date when this constitution comes into operation, the distinction or difference embodied in the several Schedules to this Constitution and...

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7.75.128
Sir, I am at a loss to understand why while providing for "any contingency" the words Vice-President should have been omitted, in laying down provision for the discharge of the functions entrusted to the President. Such a contingency might quite possibly occur when the President, for one reason or other,--let us say, for having lost confidence ...
7.75.38
I do not, of course, desire that any "luxury" should be available to these personages, which is not available to the rest of the country. But I do not want, also, to conceal the view that, even if the holder of such office has held it only once for the full period, he should be given a retirement pension.

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8.101.196
    I therefore make this amendment affecting not merely the revenues, but all items of expenditure whether from borrowed funds, or transferred from other funds, which are to be utilised for the service of the country.
8.101.136
    An Act of Parliament, however, the Legislature's authority given in the most solemn form of an Act, is indespensable and absolutely necessary. But in may also be provided for by the rules made by Parliament, so that the various stages of the Budget, and the various results of the Budget, presented to the House, in the shape of the Finance Ac...

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7.62.29
Sir, I do not wish to waste the time of the House. May I point out that this amendment is in substance the same as was rejected by the House when it was considering the Directives. I think the old number was 848. In substance it amounts to the same thing. I can make out a case to show that it is slightly different, both in numbering and perhaps...
7.62.92
Any section of the community which is backward must necessarily impede the progress of the rest; and it is only in the interest of the community itself, therefore, that it is but right and proper we should provide facilities so that they may be brought up-to-date so to day and the uniform progress of all be forwarded.

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7.81.23
     Sir, the original clause as it stands reads:     "For every State there shall be a Legislature which shall consist of Governor; and(a) in the States of ........., two Houses,(b) in other States, one House."
7.81.27
     Those who like to defend the Second Chamber are, more often than not, champions of vested interests, which find a place in these bodies and as such find an occasion rather to defend their own special, sectarian or class interests than to help the popular cause.

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8.85.79
I will be forgiven, I hope, by the House if I remind the Members of the tale of imperial preference during the last fifteen or twenty years to which this country had been subject. If imperial preference is to wear a new appearance now, as the British Commonwealth of Nations is going to wear a new designation, I cannot but warn this House agains...
8.85.85
One word more and I have done. The political aspect of the situation is no less important than is sought to be made out here. We are told, Sir, that we cannot live in an isolated cell of our own. We certainly cannot. Nor does anybody suggest that we should try and live in an isolated compartment of our own. It would be a folly; it would be impo...

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7.53.35
Thank you. If the assurance given by some friends is correct, I hope the House would have no objection to accept this amendment. I trust that those friends here who are very loud in this assertion will induce others in the House to set aside party barriers, and support me in this promising description, this encouraging epithet of the State.
7.53.143
In proposing this particular amendment, Sir, I have no illusion about the actual state of affairs. In the States today, including both - what are called the Provinces and which have still to be called the States proper - I realise there is no equality, of population or possibilities, area or resources.

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7.72.99
A properly organised minority may secure a sufficient number of votes for the individual or the candidate to stay on, until by transfer, re-transfer and re-retransfer he finally secures an absolute majority. That majority will be a misleading and a highly ambiguous majority, in which the major portion of the country will not be reflected.
7.72.13
And as representing the sovereignty of the people, in their collective capacity, at home and abroad, he must be in a position to command the confidence of the people, be they majority or minority. And I at least hold the view that the President, once elected, ceases to be a party man even as the President of this House is. So I have only sugges...

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8.88.164
It was with that view that I had suggested an earlier amendment, making in categorically clear that a Money Bill can only be introduced in the Lower House. The negative way, in which that clause has been framed, is open to some misconstruction and abuse. However, that amendment has not been moved. I am, therefore, now seeking to make clear what...
8.88.160
The wording of this article as it is here leaves, according to me, considerable room for apprehension that the powers of the House of the People over matters financial will not be as wide not be as wide and as complete as I had thought ought to be the correct position in representative democracy with responsible ministry.

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8.90.122
     : On a point of personal explanation, I have not said that they should be elected. I have said that the Council of States should be consulted.
8.90.41
     If, however, any judge feels that, due to mental or physical causes, he is unable to carry on or do full justice to his functions, it may be open to him to resign I suggest, after ten years of service in a judicial capacity; and if he so resigns, I further suggest that he should be exposed to no want, no fear as to his ordinary livelihood....

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8.89.185
     : Sir, I move:     "That under Chapter IV of Part V, the following new article be added :--     "102-A. Subject to this constitution the Judiciary in India shall be completely separate from the wholly independent of the Executive or the Legislature."
8.89.187
     Sir, the principle of the separation of powers has been regarded in many countries as the foundation stone of democratic Government. Unfortunately, I have not been able to persuade the House, in regard to this very important principle, on other occasions that I had enunciated it either generally or in regard to the Legislature. In the case...

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9.119.92
In this case, as it has already been pointed out, the limitation on the total strength may become incongruous, in view of the strength of the population in the different States; and the actual strength of a Second Chamber in a State may be such as to be perhaps incompatible with or unworkable along with the Lower Chamber.
9.119.22
Sir, there are several amendments in my name which I would like to seek your guidance on. Under the new scheme suggested by Dr. Ambedkar, all these amendments would seem to be irrelevant. Thus the entire scheme being different, my amendments have been laid down according to the original scheme.

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7.64.36
Allowing that is the interpretation, or that is the justification for adding this word "expression", I still do not see why freedom of worship should have been excluded. I am not particularly a very worshipful man myself. Certainly I do not indulge in any overt acts of worship or adoration. But I think a vast majority of people feel the need and...
7.64.26
I am sure that was not the intention or meaning of the draftsmen who put in the other articles also. I suggest therefore that instead of making it subject to the provisions of this article, we should make it subject to the provisions of this Constitution. That is to say, in this Constitution this article will remain. Therefore if you want to ins...

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11.158.82
    I hold, therefore, that this Constitution is not, in the fullness of the sense, a real, working, effective democracy that the people of India had been led to expect they have achieved.
11.158.80
    Because you are still unable to trust in full the people; because you arc still unable to realise that it is only by working a democracy that democracy will really be established in this country, you have not accepted those suggestions and those amendments of mine which wanted such weapons, such instruments and devices to be introduced in th...

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8.87.202
I do not move, Sir.Article 83
8.87.276
Sir, this is a simple proposition well known in constitutional practice in other countries also, that a sovereign legislature is the sole judge of the privileges of its members as well as of the body collectively. It follows, therefore, as an inevitable corollary that any breach thereof should be dealt with by the House concerned, and any order...

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7.60.130
Sir, I beg to move: That for the heading `Fundamental Rights' under PartIII, the following be substituted: -"Fundamental Rights and Obligations of the State andthe Citizen."
7.60.81
We are, I admit, living today in a heavy atmosphere ofall-round distrust and suspicion. And in that atmosphere, it is impossible to find people in any country willing toexpose their own national security and independence, bytaking the first step towards real disarmament. For us,however, in this country, I venture to submit to this House,there ha...

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8.95.247
I have not deliberately indicated the scale of such pension. I have also suggested the condition that the pension is payable only if the person concerned retires. That is to say, he really devotes himself for the rest of his life to the honorary service of the country in whatever way may be open to him free from any want, and that he does not ho...
8.95.155
These, again, are contingencies which may occur and therefore there must be constitutional authority for the removal of the governor. I think it is nothing but rounding off of the occasions where this extraordinary power may have possibly to be exercised, namely the proving of the governor as guilty of bribery or corruption or mental or physical...

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7.63.106
 I think, therefore, that if it was made clear by the addition of the words that I have suggested, namely, that no one not professing a particular religion need be associated with managing the affairs of that institution it would suffice. It would serve the purpose, if such purpose is to be served, of the original Foundation; and at the same tim...
7.63.108
  No. 365 is verbal and is disallowed.(Amendments Nos. 367 and 368 were not moved.)

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9.118.200
     : Yes, Mr. Shah is physically short-sighted, but he is able to see meanings which are not visible to others.
9.118.203
     The first item on which the Governor-General may make any order in relation to any legislature of any province seems to me to suggest, for instance, that all that we are trying to do by this Constitution to evolve a common pattern of the Constitution may be broken. Let it be even for the transitional period; but even so the uniformity, the ...

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7.67.36
The clause as amended would read:     "Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any existing law or preclude the State from making any law-(a) regulating, restricting or prohibiting any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice;.........." 
7.67.39
I do not wish to hurt anybody's feelings by citing specific examples of religious heads, or those claiming to be acting in the name of religion, carrying on a number of worldly activities of a most undersirable kind. They not only minister to the benefit or aggrandisement of the particular sect or class to which they belong, but, more often than...

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7.49.147
Sir, I have to join in the chorus of congratulations that have been offered to the Drafting Committee and its Chairman for the very elaborate Draft Constitution that they have placed before this House. I have particularly to felicitate the Law Minister for the very lucid way in which he has put forward the salient features of the Constitution fo...
7.49.151
But there is one aspect of it which I wish even at this moment to place before the House. The Rights are throughout spoken of only as "Rights"; and there is not a word said about Obligations. I would put it to the House that we are living and thinking as individuals or as a community too much of Rights and forgetting our Obligations whether as c...

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7.61.76
Sir, I can give you innumerable examples where time has been taken and rightly taken. Why, the fundamental constitution of the country should be studied, should be considered, should be viewed from every angle before it is passed. And that will not be served, I repeat, Sir, by your hurrying through in this manner. If, therefore, it is open to m...
7.61.68
Verbal amendments of this kind, whatever the appearance, are suggested, not merely for the fun of producing a debate or for seeing one's name in the papers. Verbal amendments very often embody a difference in expression which is a difference of approach, if not also of the ideal behind. And though we may not all be authorities on English lexico...

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8.96.138
: Sir, I move:"That in Amendment No. 177 of List III (Third Week) of Amendment to Amendments, dated the 30th May, 1949, in the proposed new clause (7) of Article 144--(a) in the first para,--(i) in line 1, after the word 'Every' the words 'Governor or' be inserted,(ii) in line 3, for the word 'disclosure' the word 'declaration' be substituted;...
8.96.28
Sir, this is a logical consequence of the general principle of this Draft Constitution, namely, that the Government is to be upon the collective responsibility of the entire Cabinet to the Legislature. At the same time, in the Cabinet the Prime Minister or the Chief Minister or by whatever title he is described would be the Principal Adviser and...

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7.82.68
     While accepting that the President would be the head of the Government, I shall do not quite understand why all the Government business should be carried on and orders issued in the name of the President. Even if you are following the practice in England, according to this draft, the orders etc. of the Government in England are by "His Maj...
7.82.66
     : Sir, I Move:     "That in clause (1) of article 64, for the word 'President' the words 'Government of India' be substituted" and,      "That in clause (2) of article 64, for the word ‘President’, where it occurs for the first time, the words 'Government of India', for the word 'President', where it occurs for the second time, the words '...

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9.120.149
    What would happen would be, that public servants or officers of the State would be automatically restrained. Instead of using any force or extending their authority in any way they think proper or necessary, they would think twice before taking such steps as may not be permitted by an Act of Indemnity. Or Parliament may not pass an Indemnity...
9.120.140
    : Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move:     "That in part (vi) of amendment No. 18 above, for the proposed new clause in the proposed article 280, the following be substituted :-'Notwithstanding anything contained in this article, the right to move the Supreme Court, as guaranteed by article 25 of this Constitution, by appropriate proceedi...

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7.69.15
 Sir, I look upon culture of mankind, and the culture of every section of mankind, as not merely a static phenomenon but as a progressive and developing fact. To my mind, therefore, even more important than conserving it at some stage to which it has risen, is the need to develop it. And the culture of a country or a community is much wider and ...
7.69.16
 Speaking of the languages of the various sections of the country, they have, in recent years, especially during the last two or three generations, been developed and cultivated up to a point at which many of them have become suitable, in my judgment, to become the vehicles for the imparting of any state of instruction, right up to the Universit...

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9.111.148
That, surely, should not have been the intention, and that should not be the purpose of a provision like this in the Constitution. The moment you introduce a provision like this in our Constitution, the moment you provide that the right to move the Supreme Court which has been guaranteed by a previous article shall be suspended by an order of t...
9.111.152
I think this is an excess of power being given to the President, I think it is an excess, shall I say, of reaction against which the Draftsmen cannot be warned too strongly, cannot be warned too often. I would, therefore, suggest that if at all such a clause is necessary-for my part, I do not think it is necessary-it should be included as part ...

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8.100.219
    I do not wish that the withdrawal of the case must be compulsory or mandatory, but some discretion must be left, and the case may be withdrawn if the judge so decides, but not necessarily, as this article requires him to do as clear compulsion on the judge to ask the case to be withdrawn.
8.100.217
The amended article would read thus:    "If the High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution, it may withdraw the case to itself dispose of the same.”     Explanation.-In this article, 'High Court' includes a court of final jurisdicti...

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9.115.38
 : Mr. President, Sir, I also support the amendments moved by Mr. Kamath and Mr.Saksena. I confess I am not very happy over this entire chapter relating to the appointment, powers, and activities of the Finance Commission. The Finance Commission is so much more additional patronage in the hands of the executive, and will act, in so far as it is ...
9.115.122
Now, that is a consideration which fills me, for one, with great apprehension for the future. I am not prepared to say that there should be an utterly unconditional or unlimited power even under the Constitution to the executive to borrow up to what limits and in what manner it likes whether at home or abroad. As you know, in the past I leave p...

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9.109.251
I feel, Sir, that the same tendency is noticeable in another part of this amendment where a Proclamation of Emergency is said to be possible to extend or uphold if by Resolution the two Houses of Parliament approve of it. There is, however, no provision, so far as I can see, for the Houses being able to disapprove or reject the Proclamation, to...
9.109.248
There are several points on which I think this amendment not only breaks new ground, but seeks to invest the President with authority and power that cannot be consistent with democratic, responsible Government as we have been taught to believe.

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8.98.61
     It is possible that you have entrusted powers of this kind to the Central Government of Legislature. On that basis, you may have a feeling of some kind of justice being given to the parties complaining. For my part, I am afraid that, by their very nature, the Central Government or the Central Legislature may be suspected of being actuated b...
8.98.59
     Sir, this is a very difficult matter which is already agitating the minds of many public men; and unless we find a remedy for it in a constitutional manner, it would raise its ugly head to very unpleasant proportions.

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8.94.95
:Sir, the principle of this having been rejected by the House earlier, I do not want to move it.Article 128
8.94.131
There is a considerable force in the substitution suggested by me in this amendment. The Constitution should make it imperative upon the Governor to use his powers in accordance with the Constitution and the law, that is to say, on the advice of his Ministers, as provided for in the subsequent clauses and in other parts of the Constitution. The...

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8.99.234
In that case I shall not move it. (Amendment 2562 was not moved.)*Article 192(Amendments 2578 to 2580 were not moved.)
8.99.232
It has been discussed, I know.

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3.21.13
But as this raises many complicated issues, I do not move it but suggest that this should go back to the Advisory Committee.
3.21.15
No, Sir.

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7.70.4
 I would point out, Sir,....(Shri B. Das rose to speak.)
7.70.2
 Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move: "That under the heading "Right to Property" the following new article be added:'23-A. All forms of natural wealth, such as land, forests, mines and minerals, waters of rivers, lakes or seas surrounding the coasts of the Union shall belong to the people of India. No private property shall be allowed in any...

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3.20.10
I do not propose to move the amendments in my name.

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3.19.128
I do not move my amendment (No.18 of Supplementary List II ) at this stage.
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