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Speakers referred to

B.R. Ambedkar

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village

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SR.91
It is wrong to suppose that the Village Communities were isolated entities even in ancient and medieval India. We learn from the Manusmriti, the Mahabharata, Kautilya’s Atthashastra and other Sanskrit books that there were officers at the head of one village, ten villages, twenty villages, one hundred villages, one thousand villages, each officer...
SR.79
Village Communism would also make for social harmony and social security. The village .communities in the past regarded themselves as big joint-families; the misfortunes of an individual were the misfortunes of the whole village. If a person suffered from theft the rest of the community ultimately made up the loss. If a villager’s cottage was ac...

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7.57.167
Ours is an ancient, a very ancient country and the village has had always an important position here. This has not been so with every ancient country. In Greece, for instance, towns had greater importance than villages. The Republics of Athens and Sparta occupy a very important place in the world history today. But no importance was attached by ...
7.57.159
Sir, one of the distinguished friends of this House was remarking the other day to me, "why are you thinking of these village republics and all these things? The bullock cart days have gone; they will never come back." This was his observation. I may point out to that friend that the village republic which is proposed to be established in the co...

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CB.481
(8) Village Panchayats should have the right to tax themselves for improvement of Villages, for wells, tanks, etc., made by Village labour, under the control of the Panchayat. Grants proportioned to the value of the Village labour may be made by the Sabha, the Samiti or the Legislative Council.  [The above suggestions will have to be worked out...
CB.113
107. (a) The ·villagers shall elect a Panchayat from among themselves, which shall exercise the powers vested in it by the Provincial Legislature, to administer village, affairs and to exercise such civil and criminal jurisdiction as may be assigned to it by a Bench sitting in the village. (b) The residents in a Ward shall elect a Panchayat from...

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7.50.101
I have to make one other submission to the House and it is this. We have heard too much about the village panchayats. How these village panchayats will work I do not know. We have got a conception and that conception we try to put into practice. I wish to submit to this House for their very serious consideration that when the constituencies come...
7.50.135
I am certain that a very large majority of the House do not agree with this view of village republics. As one who has done work in villages and has experience of the working of Congress village panchayats for the last twenty-five years, I can say that this picture is purely imaginary. It is an entirely wrong picture. I personally feel that, if w...

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7.52.182
 It is very unfortunate that a good deal of controversy arose in regard to village panchayats. Dr. Ambedkar's strong remarks on the subject were apparently based on his own experience. But, like Mr.AlladiKrishnaswamiAyyar, I wish to speak for myself in the light of my own experience. For over thirty years, the Mysore Government have put the revi...
7.52.142
 The Constitution which is now on the anvil places before us provisions of many kinds. It appears to me from what I have been able to gather from these provisions that it is being built from above and not from below, the base. If it had been built from the base upwards, our Constitution would have first been framed in the languages of our countr...

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7.51.83
Coming to the economic condition of the villagers, especially the tillers of the soil and agricultural labour, I do not find any provision has been made in the Draft Constitution to consider the village as a unit. Of course, due to exploitation and other things, the villages are in rack and ruin. It is the highest duty of any constitution-making...
7.51.75
I beg to utter a few words of caution to all Honourable friends who are so enthusiastic protagonists of the Village Panchayat System. Unless and until our village peoples are educated, unless and until they become politically conscious unless they become conscious of their civic rights and responsibilities, and unless they become conscious of th...

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7.54.28
Sir, I beg wholeheartedly to support the amendment proposed by Professor Shah where he says that the member States of the Union of India shall be organised on a uniform basis of groups of village panchayats co-operatively organised. I would like to go a step further and say that instead of making the village panchayat a unit, we should make a v...
7.54.25
Sir, I agree with the suggestion that, early or late, we must re-organise this country on a system of village panchayats. But today there are not such panchayats. That being so, if today we are told that within a period of ten years, to be provided for in the Constitution itself, all distinction should be abolished, it would not be a practical ...

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11.163.58
  Sir, I only say that nothing can be more uncharitable and unjust to the villagers than what Dr. Ambedkar has said. Sir, it is not only uncharitable but it is not based on facts. Dr. Ambedkar himself admits that they have survived and they have kept the independence of India. He says that mere survival is not enough, mere survival has no value....
11.163.181
  : *[Mr. President, at this occasion when we are going to accept a Constitution for India, I most humbly want to pay my homage to the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi, whose hard penance and extraordinary skill relieved us of our bondage. At the same time to pay my homage to those innumerable men and women who joined hands with us in our s...

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7.49.58
On one thing I join issue with Dr. Ambedkar. He was pleased to refer to the villages - I am quoting from a press report in the absence of the official copy - as "sinks of localism and dens of ignorance, narrow-mindedness and communalism"; and he also laid at the door of a certain Metcalfe our "pathetic faith" in village communities. Sir, I may s...
7.49.41
has also raised other issues. He has said that this Constitution does not give any voice to the villages. He is thinking of the Soviet Constitution. Mahatma Gandhi's own Constitution, of which an outline was given by Shri S. N. Aggarwal, was also based on village republics or village panchayats, and I think we shall have to discuss this point c...

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11.162.88
    I feel that in the matter of framing the constitution we have superimposed a Constitution from above and have not made a real effort to start from village life. This matter, as you will remember, formed the subject of an important discussion in this House and I must admit that for once and for the first time I thought that Dr. Ambedkar]]] wa...
11.162.194
     Of course criticisms have been made that the village panchayats cannot work, because our villagers are ignorant, and that there will be scramble for power. But, a glance at the daily papers will convince us that in most of the provinces there is a scramble for power even on the part of the provincial leaders. So, it would be an absolutely s...

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11.161.192
The two fundamental things about this Constitution are the unity of the country and a strong Central Government, and surely none need be sorry for either reason. It is absolutely necessary that we must have a strong Centre. But we have a strong Centre only so far as it has been consistent with necessary and reasonable provincial autonomy. We hav...
11.161.181
That is what we have provided for in this Constitution. While absolute religious freedom has been granted, we have made several provisions in the Act laying it down specifically that religion shall not be compulsorily taught even in educational institutions which receive any aid from the Government. What Mahatma Gandhi was particularly anxious a...

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9.133.84
     Someone spoke as if he is very much interested in the advancement of the hill tribes. I thank that gentleman whoever he may be, for his good motive in desiring the advancement of the hill tribes! But advancement cannot come by force. Advancement comes by a process of assimilation of a higher culture, higher mode of thinking and not by force...
9.133.56
      Mr. President, I would like to make a few observations with regard to this question. I had gone to Assam in 1938, not for travel but in connection with relief work. In that year, there had been devastating floods in Assam, I went there for flood relief work and toured every district, but could not go to the Naga Hills. The reason for my no...

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11.160.14
    The provisions regarding the integration of States for which the credit goes entirely to Sardar Patel, and the provisions regarding minorities which are there mainly due to his efforts are all very welcome. Then there is the provision regarding property. We have not made it absolutely justiciable. That is again another good feature of the Co...
11.160.8
   I was saying that this Constitution is a Federal Constitution with a facade of Parliamentary democracy. Mahatma Gandhi wanted India to be a decentralised democracy. He told Louis Fischer, the eminent American publicist some years ago that "there are seven hundred thousand villages in India each of which would be organised according to the wil...

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11.164.142
  There is another criticism that the village as a political unit has not been recognized. I fear that behind the back of this criticism is distrust of adult franchise. What was conceived under the village unit system was that the village voters would be called upon to elect the Panchayats and only the members of the Panchayats were to take part...
11.164.113
  Sir, I moved an amendment seeking to bring the village panchayats under the Fundamental Rights. They have, however, been brought under the Directive Principles. If the village panchayats are properly constituted as provided in the Directive Principles, the wishes of Mahatma Gandhi could be fulfilled. There are many articles in this Constitutio...

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9.109.68
I submit that the question should be looked at from a practical point of view. Delhi, Old and New, have associations of thousands of years and it is the seat of the Government of India. Here are located a large number of Ambassadors and foreign representatives. Here the Dominion Legislature and the Houses of Parliament will sit and a large numb...
9.109.22
The next question for consideration is whether 200 or 300 villages and a small city will be able to bear the financial burden of a Lieutenant-Governor. It can be said emphatically that it cannot do so. The administration of this region would not therefore run efficiently. It is clear that the administration of such a small unit would not be abl...

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7.83.185
     Now, Sir, with regard to the particular amendments that I have submitted for you consideration, the words in sub-clause (4) are: "file a declaration of his intention". We have just been told by the Honourable the Prime Minister that when the enumerator--by that I take it we mean the person who is in charge of the preparation of the elector...
7.83.289
     Now, Sir, so far as the general debate on the article is concerned, it seems to me that there are only two points that call for reply. The first point is with regard to the census figures to be adopted for the purpose of the new elections. A great deal of argument was concentrated by many speakers on the fact that the census in certain pro...

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7.62.130
The second question put to me was whether 'place of public resort' includes burial grounds. I should have thought that very few people would be interested in the burial ground, because nobody would care to know what happens to him after he is dead. But, as my Friend Mr. Nagappa is interested in the point should say that I have no doubt that a p...
7.62.126
 For instance, none of us, I think, would like that a separate school should be established for the Scheduled Castes when there is a general school in the village open to the children of the entire community. If thee words are added, it will probably give a handle for a State to say, 'Well, we are making special provision for the Scheduled Cast...

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9.114.130
Sir, those friends who want to increase the maximum limit from Rs. 250 to one per cent of the income, I am afraid, have entirely misunderstood the needs of the Centre and the manner in which whatever the Centre collects by way of income-tax is distributed to the provinces. Let us first of all see what the Centre gets and what proportion is giv...
9.114.128
  Sir, when I said that all the power should be given to the people in the villages I did not mean that there ought to be no provincial or Central Government. Let there be Central and provincial Governments. But let them not govern the people. Let them help and organise the people and advise the people. Why should even in matters of taxation the...

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7.58.18
We have given the villager only the right of vote. And this too we have given him only to take back after every five years - he will give us his vote. He is only the custodian of the right of vote; and we being his leaders he must return the vote to us at the time of elections. We are always their leaders. Sir, I have had experience of Legislat...
7.58.17
In moving this amendment I wish to bring to the notice of the House the fact that the condition of rural areas is very bad today. In fact rural areas have been depleted, and deliberately deprived and made devoid of all their old initiative and incentive to work. The conditions in the villages are so bad that the artisan classes have all practic...

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7.69.154
: If it is so, then in reply I would tell both Mr. Pant and Mr. Santhanam, as they too have asked where the money is to come from and how it would be possible to make duplicate arrangements, in case there is only one student, I say that the assertion just made that the Muslims residing in villages speak Hindi language is totally wrong. I challe...
7.69.150
Now, I would like to say something about the amendment which I had moved in this connection. As certain events have occurred and Mr. Pant, the Premier of my province and Mr. Santhanamhave said something about this, I would like to reply to them briefly. It is this: Mr. Santhanam has said that the amendment of Mr. Lari, namely, amendment No. 676...

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5.46.15
Sir, after this clear statement of the objectives, when the justiciable rights came before us, I was expecting to see that in our Constitution equality, social and economic, would play a prominent part. Not having found it in the justiciable rights I expected to see this in the non-justiciable rights. I searched and searched, but searched in vai...
5.46.73
Sir, I strongly support the amendment moved by ShrimatiRenuka Ray. I think it carries out more fully the intentions of the Sub-Committee. In our country, even in the same religion there are any number of denominations. We want the village panchayats to control education; we want the local boards to control education. In a particular village or a...

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9.108.212
As regards the services, few people realize that although Delhi has got a population of about 20 lakhs, there is no scope for its young men in Government services. Take for instance the Provincial Civil Services; they have no place in either United Provinces or East Punjab and Delhi has no cadre of its own. They only know that they have to be go...
9.108.174
A few days back a Bill for adjusting the financial relations of Ajmer and Delhi administrations was presented for the consideration of the Standing committee of this House. The scales of pay of the Officers proposed in that Bill were the same as those in big provinces. The same is the case in regard to other departments although there are hardly...

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9.121.50
     Nowadays there are so many villages, where there is not even a primary school. First of all, a villager's spending capacity is so little that he cannot send his children to the secondary or the higher schools in the city. Apart from this, you can just imagine how many villages are provided with facilities for primary education.
9.121.72
      These were the principles and the attitude which we had all through adopted in the choice of our avocations in life and this is one of the reasons why we do not find many rural people in the services. The glamour that has now come to be attached to services and jobs under the Government is only of recent origin. This is why the Father of o...

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11.158.99
    As I said the other day, in the earlier stages, when we were discussing the Objectives Resolution, the House was unanimously of the view that the Centre should be strong and therefore the Drafting Committee had that point in view--I do not say that the provinces are mere skeletons, they have been given many powers--and the Centre has been ma...
11.158.63
    Many more. You will see that on the enforcement of this Constitution very few civil liberties will remain. India is a country of villages. In complete disregard of the villages we have turned into citizens and ask for rights of citizenship. I would say that we should have 'village-zen-ship' rights also. I do not see 'village--zen-ship' right...

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7.65.95
Further we read of the right to 'move freely throughout the territory of India'. This is sub-clause (d). Under it every citizen of India would have the right to move freely into any province or any village of India. But the substance of this right is taken away by clause (5). I would make this clear by an illustration. It is a matter of great am...
7.65.72
Mr. Vice-President, Sir, the Harijans of the Punjab are very much indebted to the Chairman of the Drafting Committee for having included article 13 in the Constitution. At present it is the custom in the Punjab that only one particular community can purchase land and take to agriculture. But the Harijans, 90 per cent of whom are cultivators, are...

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9.119.175
     Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I am in full sympathy with the claim which my honourable Friend, Mr. Sidhva has put forward regarding the local bodies, but as I interpret the article, I see no necessity for the amendment which he has proposed. As the article at present stands, the House may have noted that it is a reproduction of Section 137 of th...
9.119.174
      Sir, a very fundamental question is raised by this amendment. We probably think that only the Centre and provinces should be provided with funds. We forget that the local bodies have also got vital functions to perform. I was surprised to learn from one of the members of the Drafting Committee that these bodies were useless bodies and it ...

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7.59.17
Then apart from education, there is a thing like medical health and public health. Most of you are very honest and sincere workers and you have been to villages. Even during my occasional visits I find that the poor villager has absolutely no medical help. There are thousands of lepers who require medical help and if all that tremendous help is ...
7.59.208
There had been Pay Committees of Government of India and the Provinces who have not thought of lowering the salary level of the Executive or Judicial Officers. This House had accepted Village Panchayats. Dr. Ambedkar was generous to refer to the Congress principles. Is it practicable to-day? I support my friend Mr. Krishnamachari that it is not ...

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9.129.445
     The question is :       "That Entry 14 stand part of List II.The motion was adopted.Entry 14 was added to the State List.…………
9.129.442
: Then I would request you to allow me to move it as a separate entry and no member can take objection on the ground that it was not notified. If it is acceptable to the House, a new number can be given to It. It may be 14 or at the end.

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7.48.231
Another criticism against the Draft Constitution is that no part of it represents the ancient polity of India. It is said that the new Constitution should have been drafted on the ancient Hindu model of a State and that instead of incorporating Western theories the new Constitution should have been raised and built upon village Panchayats and Di...
7.48.232
Such is the part the village communities have played in the history of their country. Knowing this, what pride can one feel in them? That they have survived through all viscisitudes may be a fact. But mere survival has no value. The question is on what plane they have survived. Surely on a low, on a selfish level. I hold that these village repub...

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9.139.234
It is being argued by some people that the change sought to be made is very minor, because a number of the numerals, more particularly (1), are similar in form. But, in this connection, Sir, I would like you to visualise the situation that is likely to arise. in our province, if we agree to the adoption of international form of numerals. We hav...
9.139.191
We have a common and ancient history. We have a common language having a rich literature of its own. This Vedic Sanskrit-the ancient form of our language-was for long in dominant use in our country. But a language never remains stationary. Our language also underwent some changes. But this was what happened in the case of all other languages. T...

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11.165.263
     Such is the danger. I therefore want the coming generations not to play into the hands of persons who are professional'. This Constitution should rather be run by political professionals' – persons who have their won professions to live upon, but who come here to run the State voluntarily or on small pays because along with their own perso...
11.165.172
     And next, you have also been able to remove untouchability which had divided one section of Hindus from the rest. Mahatmaji began his fast unto death on the 20th September 1932 and worked a miracle in the space of six days. Now we have removed untouchability not merely in name, not merely in word and spirit, but also in law, so that nobody...

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9.122.101
   It is not a question of competition. If you want to run the country, properly, if the administration is to be efficient as my friends want it to be, then you must have people in the job who know something about the job and who come from the masses. Otherwise the administration will lose touch with the masses. That is why in almost all the cou...
9.122.98
    Mr. President, Sir, I rise to give my support, my whole-hearted support to the two amendments moved by Dr. Deshmukh. The other point of view expressed in this House is for giving greater powers to the Public Service Commission, and the opponents hold that efficiency and merit should be the only tests in recruitments. It is not a fight for a ...

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9.124.57
     I would in this connection, submit that all these Governments should pass a law in which they may be given full rights of ownership in their houses in the villages where they are not enjoying them today. Like all others fundamental rights are open to them, but I know in many villages these Scheduled Castes are not enjoying fundamental righ...
9.124.81
     It was asked, what good the Bihar Government as well as other Governments have done to them? I will not try to convince those who refuse to be convinced; but given time. I will give you some figures. During the course of three years, you will be surprised to know, a grant of rupees one crore has been spent over the construction of irrigati...

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9.112.151
Sir, the Government of India enjoys a superior position. It does not think it has any responsibility to explain its conduct, or its attitude towards financial disbursement to this sovereign House. A moment ago, we heard Dr Ambedkar saying that a Special Officer or a Special Committee is going to be appointed to examine how resources can be re-a...
9.112.186
 Before I put the amendments to vote, I desire to say a few words about the amendment moved by Shri Mahavir Tyagi. I was considerably surprised by the attitude which has been adopted by the Drafting Committee in regard to this amendment. It was not without reason that salt was selected by Mahatma Gandhi as the one tax out of so many taxes which...

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9.140.364
   That is the question Mahatma Gandhi asked, not very many years ago but as late as August 1947. It may be said that he refers here only to Delhi and the surrounding parts. But in the same article later on he says-I am reproducing his exact words :"The millions of villagers of India have nothing to do with books. They speak Hindustani which the...
9.140.252
    I am neither pleading for Hindi nor Urdu but I am just putting to you the problem of nomenclature. If we take the case to an impartial tribunal composed of judges of the high courts, put the word Hindustani before them and all the evidence pertaining to it, the tribunal can come to only one conclusion and there can be no second, that Hindust...

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5.42.195
There is this danger also. I find, though I am not opposed to centralised capital flowing in all channels and I welcome it, this will help to concentrate the wealth of the country in the hands of a few persons. It may be possible for the Centre to prefer those men with a fleet of aircraft to proceed even to the villages to the detriment of a fe...
5.42.109
Mr. President, I rise to oppose one half of the amendment of Mr. Maheshwari. As an inhabitant of an Indian state, I have some experience of those States which have their own postal arrangements, particularly the smaller States. The State-subjects have a number of difficulties there. Post offices are considered a source of state-revenue and ther...

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9.134.77
     : Sub-paragraph (1), paragraph 3, clause (e) says: "establishment of village or town committees or councils and their powers". So far so good. By the omission of this clause, the question of establishing village or town committees in the Shillong municipality so far as it is; comprised in the Mylliem State would not arise. But that is not ...
9.134.95
     I do know. But what I desire to point out is that there is absolutely no necessity, after this Sixth Schedule has been accepted, for maintaining this distinction. That is what I desire to point out. In the first place, even before 1947, the whole administration of the partially as well as the fully excluded areas was done under certain regu...

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7.53.148
It is for the same reason also that I have, in another part of this Constitution, tabled an amendment to the effect. I hope, Sir, that hereafter, at any rate, the Union of India shall consist of villages or groups of villages, which are each in themselves autonomous units, which are each in themselves republics, and each, if necessary, with the ...
7.53.146
This is not the only reason which actuates me inputting forward this suggestion before the House. I look forward to the day when this Union of India shall consist of a body of Village Panchayats, knit together amongst themselves as co-operative republics, which will combine together not only for the greater advancement of their own inherent reso...

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1.7.11
Our national life has many different trends in it but, almost unanimously, we all stand for the freedom of the individual and for a democratic State. And to show how widely differing schools of thought in our midst can agree with almost one voice on this desire to distribute power to our common people, to distribute political and economic power...
1.7.12
And as if to find an echo of that in a thinker of a very different school, I shall now cite a sentence or two from a recent Picture of Socialism drawn by the leader of the Indian Socialist Party, Jai Prakash Narain. I regret, Sir that he has not joined us in our labour here, but this is what he says and it sounds almost like an echo of Gandhiji...

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11.157.138
: Sir, I move: 'Sixth Schedule     "That clause (g) of sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 3 be omitted, and the remaining clauses '(b), (i), (j) and (k)' be relettered as (g), (h), (i) and (j)' respectively."     "That to paragraph 4, the following sub-paragraph be added:--     '(4) The Regional Council or the District Council, as the case may be,...
11.157.519
: The question is:     "That to paragraph 4, the following sub-paragraph be added:--'(4) The Regional Council or the District Council, as the case may be, may with the previous approval of the Governor make rules regulating--(a) the constitution of village Councils and courts and the powers to be exercised by them under this paragraph;(b) the ...

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PS.3
Village industries, such as hand-spinning, have been destroyed, leaving the peasantry idle for at least four months in the year, and dulling their intellect for want of handicrafts, and nothing has been substituted, as in other countries, for the crafts thus destroyed.
PS.5
Politically, India’s status has never been so reduced as under the British regime. No reforms have given real political power to the people. The tallest of us have to bend before foreign authority. The rights of free expression of opinion and free association have been denied to us, and many of our countrymen are compelled to live in exile abro...

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CIB.97
95. Each group of villages shall be in charge of an official who shall be called the Village Officer.
CIB.6
5.Territories of India. (1) Its territory shall be divided into the following Provinces: (i) Bengal, including Bihar and Assam; (ii) Madras; (iii) Bombay, including Sindh and Baluchistan; (iv) North-West Provinces, including Oudh: (v) The Punjab; (vi) The Central Provinces and Berar; (vii) Burma; (viii) Central India; (ix) Rajputana; (x) Hyderab...

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7.80.12
     The legal position in regard to the administration of these provinces is that laws are made by notification issued in the name of the Chief Commissioner under Section 4 of the Extra-provincial Jurisdiction Act which was passed by the Central Assembly in 1947. The administration is carried on under the provisions of this Act either by the Ce...
7.80.18
     Sir, Corruption has increased and there is more exploitation than before. Every village has been converted into a liquor shop and the evils of drinking have increased. The medical grants for the purpose of medicine etc., for the State hospitals have been reduced. The substantial pay of some of the employees of the States, especially the lo...

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2.12.59
Sir, there is a lot of talk about minorities. Who are the real minorities? Not the Hindus in the so-called Pakistan provinces, not the Sikhs, not even the Muslims. No, the real minorities are the masses of this country. These people are so depressed and oppressed and suppressed till now that they are not able to take advantage of the ordinary ci...
2.12.58
Sir, at the same time, I said this is not enough and I would like to say a few words about that. It is all very well to go back to our villages and to our friends and tell them that we have passed a resolution like this and that in future all their rights will be safeguarded and they will have no fears in regard to the future. But will it be eno...

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7.79.158
     The second point is regarding the constituencies. Pandit Thakur DassBhargava had tabled an amendment but it was not moved, and he did not even press for it. This, however, is quite another matter. In my opinion, urban and rural constituencies should be kept separate. Time is not yet ripe to have joint electorates. People of rural areas need...
7.79.118
    Mr. Vice-President, I would like that at the time of forming these constituencies, particular care should be taken to make them plural constituencies. The right which you have conferred on the minorities can be preserved only if you make the constituencies in such a way that they should be able to represent themselves. It is necessary, becau...

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7.79.158
     The second point is regarding the constituencies. Pandit Thakur Dass Bhargava had tabled an amendment but it was not moved, and he did not even press for it. This, however, is quite another matter. In my opinion, urban and rural constituencies should be kept separate. Time is not yet ripe to have joint electorates. People of rural areas ne...
7.79.118
    Mr. Vice-President, I would like that at the time of forming these constituencies, particular care should be taken to make them plural constituencies. The right which you have conferred on the minorities can be preserved only if you make the constituencies in such a way that they should be able to represent themselves. It is necessary, becau...

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11.159.82
Then, Sir, it is said that by articles 93 and 371 too much power has been vested in the Centre and that is likely to lead to Fascist tendencies in this country. I say that it might not lead to any such dictatorship at all. More than 14 per cent are not literate in our country and it will take long to make them literate. I have therefore my own d...
11.159.42
When I examine this constitution from the point of view as to how far the ideology of Mahatma Gandhi finds place in it, I begin to feel that it would have been much better if we had provided for our work being done mostly by Panchayats. I give very great importance to this aspect of the problem, and whenever I have in occasion to speak here or e...

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8.87.239
Mr. President, sir, I only wish to draw the attention of the House to one provision namely sub-clause (b) under article 83 (1) "if he is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court," and I hope the soundness of my mind will not be questioned if I say that this clause is not so happily worded as it should be. Sir, I presume that ...
8.87.250
But, Sir, I can enrol him if I can get his vote. Unless a competent court declares him to be of unsound mind, he can enrol himself. This declaration is obtained only if the person is a moneyed man and has property and his relative have to deal with his property. In other cases where do we find a person going in for such a declaration? There is n...

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SM.47
. The following provision shall be made in the Constitution of the Union Government:(i) There shall be a Settlement Commission under the new Constitution to hold uncultivated lands belonging to the State in trust for Settlement of the Scheduled Castes in separate villages. (ii) The Union Government shall set apart annually a fund of Rs. 5 crores...
SM.38
The United States of India shall declare as a part of the law of its constitution —(1) That industries which are key industries or which may be declared to be key industries shall be owned and run by the State; (2) That industries which are not key industries but which are basic industries shall be owned by the State and shall be run by the Sta...

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3.20.66
I was also of the same opinion as Sir AlladiKrishnaswamiAyyar, when in the party meeting I consented to the change of the present clause, but I find on reconsideration that the original clause might stand. I shall presently give the reasons. The reasons are these. Two points referred to in the clause are, one, traffic in human beings is prohibit...
3.20.65
Mr. President, going into the question as to whether there is necessity for the retention of the Explanation or not, I am quite clear in ray mind. So far as the first sub-clause is concerned, it will not preclude military conscription. In the Committee, there was a special clause inserted by Mr.Masani to the effect that there shall not be milita...

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10.150.237
Sir, the amendment moved by my Friend Mr. Pataskar and the objection made by my Friend Brajeshwar Prasad indicate that some of us are not satisfied with the old article 3 or the present draft article 3. It is not a new thing that my Friend Mr. Pataskar points out that it repeats the old Government of India Act provisions. Mr. Pataskar wanted tha...
10.150.24
With all this when that first stage has been finished the second stage is a very important part and that is we have to administer these States efficiently. Personally my view is that some of the States which are on the border should be merged with the adjoining provinces; by merging into the adjoining provinces they will certainly come into the...

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4.28.73
To me it seems significant that some of the workers very closely associated with the Congress are Indian Christians and I am sure my friends will bear testimony to the fact that we too have produced leaders who have fully identified themselves with Indian Nationalism. We owe our allegiance to the Flag, not only because we are Indian Christians, ...
4.28.79
Mr. President as I listened to Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, I thought no speech would be necessary, but since various groups in this House have severally tried to acknowledge their acceptance of and allegiance to the Flag which we are going to adopt as the National Flag of this country. I thought I would also say a few words on behalf of the 30 mil...

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3.18.248
I want to have one point clarified, Sir. Suppose a well is constructed by a philanthropic person at a public place in a small village, but he has not dedicated it for public use, and allows everyone to use it, except a few persons in the village, he has used a public place but not dedicated for public use, what will happen? What will be the posi...
3.18.228
I want to say that though some schools are thrown open to the Harijans in the villages, they are not allowed to sit along with the caste Hindu students. They are asked to sit on the floor or at a distance. I would like to say in this connection that education is the birth-right of every citizen. So a Harijan or an untouchable should be given th...

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9.137.291
I will illustrate this. And I am telling you what His Excellency our present Governor-General said when he took part in the discussion on the Estate Lands Committee report in the Madras Legislative Assembly in 1939. Say that I have a house in a village near Delhi. I passed, say B. L., and was coming to Delhi for starting my practice. I gave tha...
9.137.287
I will give my reasons in the end after speaking about another matter which is connected with this clause. I think it was Machiavelli who said that one will excuse the murderer of his own father but not the person who will take away his property. Perhaps that is the reason why there is so much discussion about this subject here and elsewhere. P...

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9.136.117
Clause (1) gives a general immunity to the property and income of the State. Clause (2) gives power to Parliament to tax any trade or business carried on by a State. Clause (3) gives exemption to clause (2), so that  Parliament may declare by law any trade or business as being incidental to the ordinary functions of Government. My submission is ...
9.136.19
Sir, this amendment is of very vital importance as far as the taxes of the Union properties are concerned. The Union properties in the territory of India are the Posts and Telegraphs, the Customs House, the Excise, the Auditor General and the most important is the railway properties. These properties an sought to be exempted from the payment of ...

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9.132.181
There is another matter to which I wish to draw your attention. It has been said that so far as the Advisory Council is concerned, they should be invested with more powers, powers of trying cases and all those, things. But, I submit, Sir, that this Advisory Council should be entrusted, as has rightly been done, with the work of welfare and adva...
9.132.176
Here, I must say one thing; I should not be misunderstood as speaking against anything that the people of the backward areas may require, may demand. I wish they should have all they demand. I know and everybody knows that there are backward people in every part of the country, in every village, in every town, even in the city of Delhi. The rem...

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4.34.219
Mr. President, I wish to speak a few words regarding this resolution, from a particular point of view. I have great sympathy for the people of Ajmer-Merwara and other Chief Commissioners' Provinces. I have greater sympathy with Delhi in particular because there is considerable affinity between Delhi and my Constituency. As a matter of fact, befo...
4.34.202
Sir, I rise to support this motion, not because, Sir, in supporting it, I want to make a speech but I want to impress upon the members who will form the Committee for this purpose to realise the importance of this question, and, therefore, I do feel some remarks are appropriate at this stage, when seconding this motion. There are so many subject...

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1.3.56
When we read the history of India prior to the advent of the, British and compare it with the conditions prevalent now, I find the villagers of this once prosperous India steeped in poverty and want. One thing, which causes me great sorrow is that whenever we try to do something for the welfare of our countrymen, impediments are placed in our w...
1.3.49
The question therefore arises: Has India not come of age? Is India still a minor? When I cast a glance along the first benches of this great Assembly I note that there are great personalities who could play the role of a Churchill or a Roosevelt or a Stalin and not only play the role but even go one better. This is so far as the top ranks of th...

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10.153.303
Sir, every Member of this House I am sure will admit that the power that is being conferred on the Central Government is a drastic power. It is necessary therefore for us to understand why article 280A is proposed to be inserted in the Constitution at the fag-end of the debate on the Second Reading of the Constitution. This matter, if it is of ...
10.153.125
I would, therefore, urge, while this article is under discussion that the Centre should come to our help. We do not want these customs duties to continue, In view of the fact that our province is a deficit province and the standards are very low, the sooner these customs duties and the Customs Department are done away with, the better for us. E...

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PDSC.11
The Working Committee of the All-India Scheduled Castes Federation holds;— (a) that so long as the Scheduled Castes continue to live on the outskirts of the Hindu village, as an alien people, with no source of livelihood and in small numbers as compared to Hindus, they will continue to remain Untouchables and subject to the tyranny and oppressi...

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5.39.68
Sir, I support the motion to take the Union Powers Committee's report into consideration. A controversy has arisen as to what powers should be given to the Centre and I feel it necessary to speak something in this connection. Distribution of powers has begun and we should consider-the matter thoroughly. Personally, I am of the opinion that the l...

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7.64.
Sir, in sub-clauses (d), (e) and (f), we have got the most valuable of our Fundamental Rights. But clause (5) seems to take away most of our rights, because States have been given power to restrict, to abridge and even to take away the rights if and when they like. We remember the word 'State' has been defined as to include even local authoritie...

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8.88.178
: I know that, Sir. I feel when any Bill authorises any body to impose taxes, that should also be a Money Bill. In fact, I think Prof. Shah's amendment which wants to add at the end of sub-clause (a) of clause(1) of article 90 the words, namely: "duty, charge, rate, levy or may other form of revenue, income, or receipt by Governments or of expe...

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7.56.39
Sir, I oppose the amendments of my friend, Mr. Naziruddin Ahmad. The words "the State" in Article 28 have been used deliberately. In this Constitution, the word "State" has been used in two different senses. It is used as the collective entity, either representing the Centre or the Province, both of which in certain parts of the Constitution ar...

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7.63.187
 Now let us turn to the wording of the particular amendment moved by ShriAlladiKrishnaswamiAyyar on which my Honourable Friend Mr.Munshi dilated at length. Sir, as I said before, I am not presuming to give any advice on the matter. Let us see what the Parliament is going to do? Is it going to pass a comprehensive law covering the needs of all th...

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8.100.107
     Mr. President, I may be pardoned for venturing to give expression to my views on this issue. I am a layman and as such it may seem somewhat presumptuous that I should talk on academic matters concerning law. At another occasion, Dr. Ambedkar had objected to my saying that my feelings were such and such. He insisted that I should express my ...

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8.95.18
We are told that this is one of the devices to bring harmony into the provinces. How could you bring harmony? It is impossible. You can never bring harmony by these acts. I could understand my honourable Friend Mr. Brajeshwar Prasad. His has been an undiluted paternal autocracy and he is for scrapping the entire Constitution; he does not have an...

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11.166.35
Some people have doubted the wisdom of adult franchise. Personally, although I look upon it as an experiment the result of which no one will be able to forecast today, I am not dismayed by it. I am a man of the village and although I have had to live in cities for a pretty long time, on account of my work, my roots are still there. I, therefore,...

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4.29.22
Again, let me point out that during the worst stage of the famine, food trains could not pass from Madras along the line to a distance of fifteen hundred miles. And it was the police who were entrusted with the duty of managing it. When they knew that the train was to be interrupted by the forces that had been organised for that purpose, they we...

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10.154.17
Outside this House we hear every one exhorting for sacrifice. We hear talks for making sacrifice from the Members of this House and from the Congress platform. Out leaders are also making constant requests to all to make all possible sacrifice for the country. If we, therefore, accept the amendment of Shri Muniswamy Pillay which lays down a nom...

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7.68.125
I want that permission should be given to a community for providing religious instruction in as well as outside working hours. It is only with the permission of the authorities of the institution that such provision will be made. Therefore, if the authorities find it practicable to include religious instruction inside the working hours, there i...

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9.135.250
    If the honourable Members have seen the communique and the comment of a Staff Reporter as to how our export trade has gone down-in which one of the causes he has mentioned is that we have been unable to export our oilseeds to such an extent as we would have been able to do but for some restrictions on the movement of the same by Provincial G...

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9.120.101
    Then we come to article 11 which deals with a most important right. By article 11 untouchability is abolished. If there is any observance of untouchability, if there is any discrimination on the ground of untouchability, it is made penal. Do you mean to give the President down to the meanest village Union Board authority to re-impose untouch...

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9.130.50
 Besides this, I would like to say that compulsory education has been introducing in all primary schools in the villages. And it is obligatory on everyone that he should get his children admitted in primary or basic schools, because people are bound to get their children admitted in these schools for their education. Now you see what is happenin...

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8.92.89
    You will see, Sir, that when the idea of giving separate reservation to the scheduled castes was first introduced, the intention was that it should last only for twenty years. After that period they were expected to become absolutely one with the Hindus. It was in the year 1933 and now it is 1949. So it is only a few years less than twenty. ...

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10.149.81
Am I to understand that after we have won our liberty all those ideals for which we stood should be put in cold storage? Are those ideals to be derided, looked down upon and laughed at? Far-sighted statesmen, politicians and public workers must bear in mind the fact that the urge for economic equality is so strong and insistent in our minds tha...

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8.96.162
An Amendment was moved by Mr. Saksena in regard to clause (3). He wanted that only members of the Lower House should be chosen as Ministers. In regard to this, my submission is that since in the Upper House we are having many members who will be elected by a large body of people, like Municipalities, District Boards, village panchayats, etc, th...

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8.99.26
Justice during the last century when the British ruled in our country has been so inordinately delayed that justice delayed is justice denied. Only the richest in the country could purchase justice. The poor man had to go to the wall in obtaining justice. The village panchayat has been given the go by Justice that has to be dealt with on the sp...

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9.123.187
You just look at the position in which we are placed. The condition of our village boys is very bad today. They do not get the facilities enjoyed by the sons of well-placed men. How can you then expect our boys to compete with those who enjoy all sorts of facilities. You do not know under what conditions our students receive education in school...

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9.127.209
     I have slightly altered my amendment to suit the change introduced by Dr. Ambedkar in his own amendment. I submit that Dr. Ambedkar's amendment would unduly enlarge the jurisdiction of the Centre and many things which would be otherwise cognizable by the Provinces would now, by virtue of the words which I seek to delete, be included within...

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8.101.36
    Apart from this, Sir, I think that cases may involve many points. First of all, two questions have to be decided, substantial question of law and the question of interpretation of the Constitution. Now, Sir, I do not think that these questions are of such a nature that they can be divorced from facts. After all, the question of law will not ...

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8.91.49
When we read the report and also other similar literature we got the impression that objection is being taken to the religious basis of the minorities. Indeed, in other countries, particularly of Europe, minorities are formed mainly on the basis of language and race, but here in our country the conditions are fundamentally different. Here one s...

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9.110.67
   With regard to amendment No. 222, I have already made a few observations as to why it is necessary, and with a view to be honest about what you mean about the scheme envisaged in the Constitution, the scheme of a sovereign democratic republic, seeking to promote not merely provincial autonomy, but seeking to develop Gram Panchayats as well ri...

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4.27.148
Thirdly, after the new constitution is framed, it will take some time before elections lake place; before delimitation of constituencies takes place. All these will take some time. I do not want to have any definite date fixed within which elections should take place under the new constitution. At the same time I would like to urge that after t...

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4.30.184
It has been pointed out, and rightly too, that the words "position of emolument" are not comprehensive to include many position in which emoluments are had by persons and therefore the words have to be made more clear. I may point out one or two instances which probably you may not have noted. For example in the C. P. and Berar, there is a syst...

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8.106.169
: Sir, I consider that article 301 is one of the most important articles of this Constitution. Left to myself, I would call it the soul of the Constitution. So far as the Depressed Classes are concerned, we have only reserved some seats for them. The rest we have not done, and this article 301 seeks to complete the process of bringing them up ...

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5.37.40
Let us resolve to create conditions in this country when every individual will be free and provided with the wherewithal to develop and rise to his fullest stature, when poverty and squalor and ignorance and ill-health will have vanished, when the distinction between high and low, between rich and poor, will have disappeared, when religion will ...

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NR.154
14. Local self-government including constitution and powers or Municipal Corporations, Local, Boards; Village Panchayats Improvement Trusts, Town Planning Boards and other local authorities in the province,and local fundaudit.

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CFI.4
Article 4. The sovereign democratic power expresses itself through local People's Committees in villages, towns and cities.

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5.41.149
After all, a gurudwara may be only ten miles away from a village in India and it would be, I hope, a very common occurrence in future for people from one Dominion to cross over into the other for a religious purpose like this without let or hindrance. Similarly, I don't see why there should be any restrictions placed on the visit to a place lik...

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9.138.459
Again and again assurances are forthcoming that this is not the case and that by Hindi they do not mean to exclude the current words and the words of Arabic, Persian and Urdu origins. They assert that such words shall not be excluded nay, they shall remain as they are. We are consoled that these words shall exist. But take the example of U. P. ...

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5.44.224
It is not only in the field of politics, but there is hardly any field in life of' a human being which has not been in some way or other touched and brightened by Mahatma Gandhi. (Applause). Whether we go to a village slum, to a city slum or whether we go to a big palace of a rich millionaire or a big Maharaja, there is hardly any place where hi...

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7.60.155
The object of the Fundamental Rights is two-fold. First, that every citizen must be in a position to claim those rights. Secondly, they must be binding upon every authority - I shall presently explain what the word "authority" means - upon every authority which has got either the power to make laws or the power to have discretion vested in it. T...

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7.78.231
     Coming to Prof. K. T. Shah's amendment I would certainly advocate the suggestion or rather the amendment moved by him proposing the appointment of advisory committees. I do not subscribe to his view completely. For instance, I do not agree with the various numbers and various other experts he has suggested, such as 25 for agriculture and s...

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9.142.232
Sir, the object of this amendments is that unless a lawyer has practised in the same province in which he is going to be appointed as a Judge, it will be very difficult for him to appreciate the customs, manners and the practices of the country. We have in our country strange results from the appointment of I.C.S. officers in the beginning of B...

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1.9.65
Without embarking upon a meticulous examination of the different parts of the Resolution, what is important is that at this session we must be in a position to proclaim to our people and to the civilised world what we are after. It has to be remembered that the main object of this Assembly is not the fashioning of a constitution of a Local Boar...

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8.103.78
     Sir, there is a feeling in some big provinces which are financially well off that they must have full autonomy and that there should be no interference by the Centre. There are certain provinces in which a certain class of people are in a majority: they desire to be independent of the Centre. This is but the same old conception of the Musli...
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