It shall be the duty of every citizen of India—


(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;


(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;


c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;


(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;


(e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;


(f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;


(g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;


(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;


(i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;


(j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;


(k) who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.