Borrowing Battles: Kerala’s Curious Reliance on Constitutional History

BLOG Vineeth Krishna 24 April 2024

At the Supreme Court of India, Kerala argues that the Constitution grants states an unfettered power to borrow money.

B.R. Ambedkar’s Defence of Constitutional Borrowing

BLOG Vineeth Krishna 18 April 2024

In the Assembly, some Constitution Framers objected to borrowing provisions from other Constitutions. When presenting the Draft Constitution of India in 1948, Ambedkar responded vigorously to these critics.

Pluralist Agreement and Constitutional Transformation (PACT)

PACT is a ground-breaking project that pursues questions through a multi-disciplinary research collaboration and a new digital platform on the making of the Indian constitution.

The Making of India’s Constitution

VIDEO 15 August 2021

Watch this exclusive animated video that traces the long history of Indian constitution-making and highlights the radical constitutional choices made by the Indian Constituent Assembly.

Welcome to Our New Website!

BLOG Editorial team 14 April 2023

We are excited to announce the launch of 3.0 on the occasion of Ambedkar Jayanti 2023! This latest version features significant upgrades in functionality, an expanded range of resources, and a comprehensive redesign aimed at emphasizing accessibility and readability.

Read the Constitution of India

Article 44: Uniform civil code for the citizens

Article 22: Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Article 368: Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor

Constituent Assembly Debates

Volume 7


04 Nov 1948 - 08 Jan 1949

This volume contains 36 sittings held from November 1948 to January 1949. The first sitting, which took place on November 4, 1948, was a pivotal moment in the Constituent Assembly’s work. B.R. Ambedkar presented the Draft Constitution of India to the Constituent Assembly and delivered a landmark speech.
Historical Constitutions

Political Demands of Scheduled Castes 1944 (SCF)

B.R Ambedkar, the founder of the All India Scheduled Castes Federation (SCF), appended this document to his 1945 book 'What the Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables'. The document comprises a series of resolutions passed by the SCF's Working Committee that demanded constitutional protections for Schedules Caste community.

Committee Reports

Report of the Sub-Committee on Fundamental Rights

16 April 1947

This Report was the first version of what would become our Constitution's Fundamental Rights chapter. It contained 45 Articles including rights to equality, freedom, religion and constitutional remedies.

Explore how the Indian Constitution was made


First Session of the Constituent Assembly

13 DEC 1946 - 22 JAN 1947

Stage 1

Committee Stages and Second Session of Constituent Assembly Debates

27 FEB 1947 - 30 AUG 1947

Stage 2

Draft Constitution by the Constitutional Adviser

01 FEB 1947 - 31 OCT 1947

Stage 3

First Draft Constitution

27 OCT 1947 - 21 FEB 1948

Stage 4

Public Circulation of First Draft

21 FEB 1948 - 26 OCT 1948

Stage 5

Debates on the Draft Constitution

4 NOV 1948

Stage 6

Second Reading of the Draft Constitution

14 NOV 1948 - 17 OCT 1949

Stage 7

Revision of the Draft Constitution

Stage 8

Third Reading of Drafting Constitution

14 NOV 1949 - 26 NOV 1949

Stage 9

Enactment and Adoption of the Constitution of India

26 JAN 1950

Stage 10

Constituent Assembly

The Constitution making process was organised around the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly. On 9 December 1946, the Constituent Assembly sat for the first time. In the span of 2 years and 11 months, it completed its task of framing India's Constitution. During this period the Constituent Assembly had 11 sessions and sat for a total of 167 days.

Only Dalit Female Member of Constituent Assembly, Eminent Social Activist

Constituent Assembly Members

Dakshayani Velayudhan

1912 - 1978

Prominent Dalit Freedom fighter, Independent India's first Labour Minister

Constituent Assembly Members

Jagjivan Ram

1908 - 1986

Constituent Assembly Members

P. Kakkan

1909 - 1981


1946 | B. R. Ambedkar on the Muslim League’s Absence from the Constituent Assembly


1947 | Hansa Jivraj Mehta’s Speech Presenting India’s National Flag


1946 | Jaipal Singh Munda Congratulates Rajendra Prasad on Being Elected as the Assembly’s President


ConQuest 2023 comes to a close. Goa University crowned champions

Ramaiah College of Law

Event Report
25 Nov 2023

IIT Madras wins South Regional Champions of ConQuest 2023. Next stop, national championships

CHRIST (Deemed to be University)

Event Report
27 Oct 2023

National Law University wins big at the North Region ConQuest quiz 2023

National Law University, Delhi

Event Report
21 Oct 2023

The National Constitution Society (NCS) is a led network of student groups at schools, colleges and universities across India that work towards building and sustaining a vibrant constitution culture.

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