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By 14 April 2023

We are excited to announce the launch of Constitutionofindia.net 3.0 on the occasion of Ambedkar Jayanti 2023! This latest version features significant upgrades in functionality, an expanded range of resources, and a comprehensive redesign aimed at emphasizing accessibility and readability.

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The effect of striking down a substitution: The Article 31C story

27 May 2024By

A recent hearing brought a crucial constitutional question to the fore—is the original provision revived when an amendment is struck down?

8 mins

B.R. Ambedkar’s Defence of Constitutional Borrowing

18 April 2024By

Ambedkar defends the Constitution's borrowing by highlighting its global alignment and need for adaptation to national requirements. He refutes claims of blind imitation, emphasizing the document's original variations tailored to India's needs.

3 mins

Ambedkar’s Challenge to the Republic

12 April 2024By

Ambedkar was optimistic about constitutional democracy working in India. However, by 1953, he had lost hope.

4 mins

The Einstein-Nehru Exchange on Israel and Palestine

20 March 2024By

Albert Einstein's remarkable letter to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was a spirited attempt to sway him towards endorsing an Israeli state. Nehru however, was not convinced.

4 mins

The Women’s Indian Association and Indian Constitutional Thought

12 March 2024By

Unlike the American constitutional founding, which was exclusively led by men, the Indian Constituent Assembly included women. Until recently, the contributions and even the presence of these women were overlooked in public memory.

6 mins

Dr B. R. Ambedkar Constitution Quiz 2024: Morarji Desai Residential School, Gadag Wins State Finals!

26 February 2024By

On 25th February, Palace Grounds was brimming with over a 1,000 enthusiastic students from schools and colleges across the state. Morarji Desai Residential School, Benakankoppa, Naragund, Gadag secured First Place!

2 mins

Ambedkar Constitution Quiz 2024: Kittur Rani Chennamma Residential School, Ramanagara wins Bengaluru Zonals!

22 February 2024By

The top two teams, the Ramanagara and Davangere Kittur Rani Chennamma Residential Schools have reached the grand finale which will be held in Bengaluru on 25th February 2024.

1 mins

Ambedkar Constitution Quiz 2024: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Residential School, Ilavala, Mysuru Wins Mysuru Zonals!

22 February 2024By

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Residential School, Ilavala, and Morarji Desai Residential School, Kallabettu, proceed to the Grand Finale of the Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Constitution Quiz 2024.

1 mins

Ambedkar Constitution Quiz 2024: Morarji Desai Residential School Benakankoppa win Belagavi Zonals!

22 February 2024By

Teams from Morarji Desai Residential School, Benakankoppa, Naragund, Gadag and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Residential School, Kulageri, Bagalkote advanced to the Grand Finale to be held in Bengaluru.

1 mins

Ambedkar Constitution Quiz 2024: MDRS, Kalaburagi Victorious in Inaugural Zonal Finals

20 February 2024By

The zonal finals in Kalaburgi were closely contested, with Morarji Desai Residential Schools, Kalburgi and Govt. Atal Bihari Vajpayee Residential School, Bidar taking the 1st and 2nd places.

2 mins

This Month in Constitution-Making (January 1947): The Constituent Assembly passes the Objectives Resolution

4 January 2024By

After a month of uncertainty, the Constituent Assembly passed Nehru's Objective Resolution, marking the start of Indian constitution-making

4 mins

Beyond Legal Legitimacy: How to Better Engage with Judgments

21 December 2023By

This piece explores various dimensions in evaluating Supreme Court judgments, including legal, moral, and sociological legitimacy, with a focus on the significance of moral perspectives in judicial discourse.

3 mins

ConQuest 2023 comes to a close. Goa University crowned champions!

27 November 2023By

We celebrated Constitution Day on 25 November 2023 with the Grand Finale of ConQuest 2023 India's Premier National Quiz on the Indian Constitution, History, and Politics.

3 mins

This Month in Constitution Making (Nov 1949): Drafting Committee Comes Under Fire

16 November 2023By

In November 1949, as the Assembly reviewed its nearly three-year-long efforts, some members launched an attack on the Drafting Committee.

2 mins

Founding Mothers of the Indian Republic: Gender Politics of the Framing of the Constitution (Achyut Chetan, 2023)

15 November 2023By

PACT Research Associate, Aishwarya Birla, reviews this new book which provides an insight on the role played by women in drafting the Indian Constitution.

4 mins

ConQuest 2023: India’s Premiere National Quiz on the Indian Constitution, History and Politics

30 September 2023By

ConstitutionofIndia.net is excited to announce the 7th edition of ConQuest: India’s Premiere National Quiz on the Indian Constitution, History and Politics.

3 mins

Abolition of Titles: Striking Resemblance in Indian and Weimar Constitutions

7 September 2023By

We trace the drafting history of Article 18 of the Constitution that abolished titles and highlight it's similarities to the Weimar Constitution.

4 mins

This Month in Constitution Making (September 1945): Newly-elected Labour Party announces a Constituent Assembly for India

4 September 2023By

How did the results of the 1945 UK General election have cascading effects on the setting up of two separate constitution-making bodies in India and Pakistan respectively?

3 mins

When The Constituent Assembly Debated Space Travel

30 August 2023By

On August 23, ISRO commanded global attention by successfully landing the spacecraft, Chandrayaan, on the moon’s south pole. Nearly 75 years ago, H.V. Kamath proposed a provision on space travel in the Constitution.

3 mins

Independence: A Tale of Two Declarations

14 August 2023By

What impact did the American Declaration of Independence have on the Declaration of Purna Swaraj introduced by the Indian National Congress in 1930?

3 mins

Our Independence Movement Constitution

9 August 2023By

What made the Indian Independence Movement so unique? How did the experiences of the Independence movement leaders shape the framing of our Constitution?

3 mins
5 mins

This Month in Constitution Making (August 1947): Constituent Assembly Appoints Drafting Committee

3 August 2023By

While Assembly members did not have any issues with the composition of the Drafting Committee, there were certain concerns regarding the role and authority of the Committee in constitution-making.

3 mins

The Jammu & Kashmir Constituent Assembly: A Brief History

28 July 2023By

In 2020, the Union repealed Article 370 that granted J&K the right to be governed by its own Constitution. In light of the upcoming Supreme Court hearings on the repeal, we trace the origins of the J&K Constituent Assembly.

4 mins

This Month in Constitution Making (July 1946): Muslim League Walks From Constitution Making, Calls for ‘Direct Action’

19 July 2023By

In the preceding months, the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress were in intense political conflict over the constitutional future of India

3 mins

Why Did Our Framers Defer the Uniform Civil Code?

4 July 2023By

The Union government will introduce the Uniform Civil Code (UCC) during the Monsoon Session of Parliament sparking renewed wave of controversy and political tensions. This piece explores the reasons behind our framers' decision to defer the UCC, and the political context that influenced this constitutional choice.

3 mins
Image credit: Wikimedia Commons

This Month in Constitution Making (June 1934): Congress Makes The First Official Demand For A Constituent Assembly

13 June 2023By

In a historic moment in June 1934, the Indian National Congress, for the first time, officially demanded an Indian Constituent Assembly to frame India's Constitution. In a span of a few years, this demand transformed into the cornerstone of India's freedom movement.

3 mins

Founding of India’s Republic: Continuity or Departure from Civilisation?

1 June 2023By

The Sengol ceremony during the new parliament's inauguration was an attempt to depict India's founding as a continuation of its civilizational heritage. Did the Founders perceive India's transformation in similar vein?

4 mins

The Constituent Assembly’s Concerns over President’s Ordinance Powers

22 May 2023By

Last Friday, the President promulgated an ordinance overturning a significant Supreme Court judgment. Did our Constitution framers intend for the ordinance powers to be used in such a manner?

2 mins

Delhi and Washington D.C. : The Two Capitals’ Pursuit of Self-Governance

19 May 2023By

Longstanding conflicts over the control of a nation's capital city between national and state governments are not exclusive to India. This piece draws parallels between India and the United States, examining the historical debates and current developments surrounding self-government their capital cities.

5 mins

The Influence of Dewey’s Ideas of Social Forces on B.R. Ambedkar

16 May 2023By

A recent book by Scott Stroud carefully explores the influence of philosopher John Dewey and his pragmatic philosophy on B.R. Ambedkar. Here, we focus on one strand of this influence: Dewey’s ideas of social forces and the role of the individual in effecting social change. 

3 mins

Our Early Legislators on the Grounds for Divorce

8 May 2023By

On 1 May, the Supreme Court made significant interventions in the divorce law governed by the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), utilising its power under Article 142 to expand the range of grounds on which individuals can seek divorce. Read what our early lawmakers had to say about this subject here.

2 mins

Bhagat Singh Hanged, Karachi Resolution Passed

23 March 2023By

On 23 March 1931 the British hanged Bhagat Singh for his involvement in the Lahore Conspiracy Case. Just a week later, the the Indian National Congress passed the iconic Karachi Resolution 1931. Were these two historic events connected?

3 mins

Should Courts Review Delimitation?

22 March 2023By

There are allegations that the recent delimitation exercises have redrawn constituency boundaries to give an advantage to a particular political party. Should courts intervene?

4 mins

B.N. Rau’s ‘Outlines of a New Constitution’

26 February 2023By

Sir Benegal Narsing Rau played a key role in the making of our Constitution, as Constitutional Adviser. In this blog, we draw attention to a document authored by him in 1946, which aimed at resolving the political deadlock over India's constitutional future, by presenting a solution acceptable to both the Congress and the Muslim League.

3 mins
Governor R.N. Ravi addressing the Tamil Nadu Legislature

The Tamil Nadu Governor and Constitutional Conventions

25 February 2023By

On 9 January 2023, the Governor of Tamil Nadu chose to skip certain portions of the speech prepared by the state government, while addressing the first session of the Legislative Assembly in the new year. This kicked off a huge political row, with the ruling party in Tamil Nadu alleging a serious breach of “convention”.

3 mins
An image of Ladakh valley

Ladakh’s Sixth Schedule Demand

25 February 2023By

Ladakh has been witnessing huge protests demanding constitutional safeguards for the region under the Sixth Schedule. We examine if this demand is legitimate.

3 mins

Distribution of Wealth: The Unfulfilled Vision of the Constitution’s Framers

24 January 2023By

The gap between India’s rich and poor continues to grow at an alarming rate, as evidenced by a recent report from Oxfam India. What did our Constitution framers think was the best way to combat wealth inequality?

2 mins

Why India’s Vice President is Wrong About Parliamentary Sovereignty

7 January 2023By

On 7 December 2022, Vice President Jagdeep Dhankar declared that ‘Parliament is the exclusive and ultimate determinative of the architecture of the Constitution’ and insisted that ‘the basic structure is primacy of the will of the people’. Are we at the beginning of another inter-institutional debate, 40 years after the Basic Structure Doctrine?

3 mins

Democracy ki Pathshala: A Collaboration with the Patrika Foundation

3 January 2023By

Our collaboration with Rajasthan Patrika over the months of October to December 2022 as an educational outreach project

1 mins

The British Game of Sovereignty

20 December 2022By

The United Kingdom are allowed to field four separate teams in international football. The reason: their unique constitutional arrangement based on devolution of the UK parliament.

3 mins

Why did B.R. Ambedkar Accept the Poona Pact?

19 December 2022By

What were the reasons behind Ambedkar accepting the Poona Pact despite the lack of inclusion of separate electorates within its provisions?

3 mins


12 December 2022By

भले ही किसी भी संविधान को बनाने में कितनी भी सावधानी रखी गई हो, वो किसी देश के राजनीतिक और सामाजिक हालात में होने वाले बदलावों का पूर्वानुमान नहीं लगा सकता। इसलिए हमारे संविधान निर्माताओं ने संशोधन नियमों को बनाते समय सही संतुलन ढूंढने को कोशिश की।

1 mins

DEMOCRATIC DECENTRALIZATION जब सरकारों की जनता के प्रति जवाबदेही तय हुई

5 December 2022By

भारत के विकेंद्रीकरण सरकार के निचले स्तरों तक लोकतांत्रिक प्रक्रियाओं का विस्तार है। स्थानीय स्तर पर होने वाले चुनावों के साथ-साथ, विकेंद्रीकरण का तात्पर्य उन शक्तियों और कार्यों के हस्तांतरण से भी है जिनका निर्वाहन स्थानीय सरकारें उत्कृष्ट रूप से कर सकती हैं।

1 mins

कैसे हुई भारतीय संघवाद की उत्पत्ति?

21 November 2022By

किसी भी संविधान के निर्माताओं के सामने सबसे महत्वपूर्ण निर्णयों में से एक संघीय या एकात्मक संरचना के बीच चयन करना। हमारा संविधान केंद्र और राज्यों के बीच विधायी, प्रशासनिक और वित्तीय शक्तियों को विभाजित करता है।

1 mins

सामाजिक-आर्थिक परिवर्तन पर लक्षित हैं निर्देशक तत्व

14 November 2022By

राज्य के नीति निदेशक तत्व भारतीय संविधान की सबसे नवीन और अनूठी विशेषताओं में से एक हैं। अनुच्छेद 37 उनके उद्देश्य को स्पष्ट करता है। ये सिद्धांत शासन के लिए मौलिक हैं और इन्हें ध्यान में रखना राज्य का कर्तव्य होगा।

1 mins

मौलिक अधिकार

6 November 2022By

ब्रिटिश शासन के खिलाफ लंबे संघर्ष ने हमारे संविधान निर्माताओं को नागरिकों की स्वतंत्रता और उस स्वतंत्रता को संरक्षित करने का महत्त्व सिखाया। जब भी भारतीयों ने एक संवैधानिक भविष्य की कल्पना की, उन्होंने इन मौलिक अधिकारों को भी इस भविष्य में शामिल किया।

1 mins

जानें… भारतीय संविधान की शक्तियां व विशेषताएं

31 October 2022By

‘हम, भारत के लोग...' वाक्यांश से शुरू होकर, प्रस्तावना यह बिल्कुल स्पष्ट करती है कि संविधान का अधिकार भारत की जनता के हाथ में है। ये शब्द नागरिकों की संप्रभुता पर जोर देते हैं कि नागरिक संविधान की सारी शक्ति का स्रोत होंगे और राजनीतिक व्यवस्था लोगों के प्रति जवाबदेह और जिम्मेदार होगी।

1 mins

आजादी की लड़ाई से प्रेरित है हमारा संविधान

22 October 2022By

भारतीय संविधान का समृद्ध इतिहास है, जो स्वतंत्रता संग्राम की ऐतिहासिक घटनाओं से प्रभावित है। समकालीन भारतीय संविधान को आकार देने वाले विचारों की जड़ें लगभग 1895 से ही विकसित होने लगी थीं।

1 mins

How did Ambedkar and Gandhi imagine Indian Federalism?

13 October 2022By and

B.R. Ambedkar's and M.K. Gandhi's contrasting views on the caste system, have garnered wide attention. Here, we compare their views on an important constitutional design feature: Federalism.

3 mins
The Making of India's Constitution

The Making of India’s Constitution: 5 Essential Primary Sources

3 October 2022By

Five Primary Sources that are critical to engaging with India's Constitution-making project.

4 mins

Desk Brief: Who Should Get Reservations?

23 September 2022By

The 103rd Amendment Act introduced reservations based on economic criteria, which up till then had been based only on social and economic backwardness. What did our Constitution-framers think about this important matter?

3 mins

Desk Brief: How our Constitution Makers Cut Their Teeth in Municipal Governance

20 September 2022By

Many Constituent Assembly members held different roles within municipal governance. But why was the Assembly reluctant to grant Constitutional provisions to municipal bodies?

3 mins

Sir T. Madhava Rao’s 1874 Constitution for the Princely States: Is This India’s First Historical Constitution?

19 September 2022By

A new historical document uncovered by Rahul Sagar could possibly be the first historical constitution document for India, before what is currently considered as the first, the Swaraj Bill of 1895.

2 mins

Chileans Overwhelmingly Reject a New Progressive Constitution

12 September 2022By

In September 2022, the Chilean population voted to reject the Draft of a new Chilean Constitution. What does the rejection of a highly progressive draft constitution mean for future constitution-making projects?

4 mins

Monarchy and the Indian Republic

12 September 2022By

How did India decide to join the Commonwealth group of nations despite being a Republic?

3 mins

5 Essential Writings on Constitution Making

7 September 2022By

Here we highlight 5 works in the field of constitution making that help readers to understand the processes involved in this field.

3 mins

National Constitution Society

1 September 2022By

In 2018, the Centre for Law and Policy Research, Bangalore (CLPR) initiated a network of Constitution societies in schools and colleges across India known as the National Constitution Society (NCS) to develop and sustain constitutional engagement among the student community in India. The NCS work provides a unique platform for students from universities across the country to interact and collaborate with each other towards building a vibrant constitutional culture in India.

1 mins

Transfer of Power: The Delayed Announcement of the Boundaries of India and Pakistan

30 August 2022By and

On the evening of 13 August 1947, Sir Cyril Radcliffe submitted a report to the Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten, that settled the territorial boundaries of India and Pakistan, referred to as the Commissions' ‘awards’. The British archives reveal why there was a delay in the publication of the awards.

2 mins

Desk Brief: Why Didn’t Sri Lanka Invoke Financial Emergency Provisions?

4 August 2022By

We examine the financial emergency provisions in the Sri Lankan Constitution, its connection to the Indian constitution and why it may not have been invoked during the crisis.

2 mins

Desk Brief: The Constituent Assembly on Retired Judges Taking Up Executive Office

19 July 2022By

We explore what our Constitution Framers thought about retired judges taking up government posts.

3 mins

This Month in Constitution Making (July 1947): Constituent Assembly Reacts to India’s Partition

11 July 2022By

In this desk brief, we break down the reactions to the announcement of Partition in the Indian Constituent Assembly.

3 mins

How a 1934 U.S. Case Shaped the Press Freedom Debate in the Assembly

28 June 2022By and

How was the debate on the Seventh Schedule of the Draft Constitution of India 1948 influenced by U.S. case law?

3 mins

Desk Brief: Why is the President of India Not Elected by the People?

22 June 2022By

Why does India 'indirectly' elect the President? What were the views of our Constitution framers on this issue?

2 mins

Desk Brief: Indian Framers Refused a Constitutional Right to Bear Arms

30 May 2022By

How did our Constitution framers debate on the issue of the right to bear arms freely?

3 mins

Desk Brief: A Brief History of the Supreme Court’s ‘Complete Justice’ Power

19 May 2022By

We explain the concept of 'complete justice' as laid out in the Indian Constitution for the Supreme Court of India.

3 mins

Why India’s Constitution Framers Hated the Sedition Law

13 May 2022By

The views of 'sedition' from our Constitution framers as compared to present day.

2 mins

This Month in Constitution Making (May 1949): India Decides to Remain in the Commonwealth of Nations

4 May 2022By

How Nehru ended up convincing the Constituent Assembly to join the Commonwealth Group of Nations.

3 mins

Workers’ Rights in M.N. Roy’s Constitution of Free India : A Draft (1944)

2 May 2022By

We examine the provisions of the Constitution of Free India: A Draft (1944).

2 mins

Desk Brief: Sardar Patel’s Spirited Defence of the Indian Civil Services

23 April 2022By

What did the ICS officers and their role mean to our Constitution framers?

2 mins

This Month in Constitution Making (April 1947): Princely States Join the Constituent Assembly

6 April 2022By

How did the group of Princely States join the Union of India?

3 mins

Desk Brief: Why Do Some Union Expenses Not Require Parliament’s Approval?

31 March 2022By

We look at how our Constitution framers decided the separation of powers with regards to Parliament and budgetary approval.

2 mins

Desk Brief: Did Indians Participate in Constitution Making?

29 March 2022By

A paper by Ornit Shani, a political scientist, explores the role of regular Indians in the Indian constitution-making process.

3 mins

Regional Translations of the Indian Constitution

27 March 2022By

The Constitution of India has been translated into all 22 scheduled languages by the Government of India. Access the translated versions of the Constitution here.

1 mins

How A 1933 U.S. Law Shaped India’s Financial Emergency Provision

25 February 2022By and

What was the impact of FDR's actions during the Great Depression on the Indian Constituent Assembly?

2 mins

Desk Brief: Constitution Framers Refused to Regulate Religious Attire

16 February 2022By

In light of the recent case on religious attire in educational institutions, we explore the thoughts of the Constituent Assembly on this matter.

2 mins

This Month in Constitution-Making (February 1947): Britain Announces It Will Quit India

9 February 2022By

The background behind the announcement of Britain quitting India in February 1947.

2 mins

Desk Brief: Indian Framers Deliberately Chose ‘Union of States’

5 February 2022By

Why is India referred to as a 'Union of States' and not a 'federation?

2 mins

Desk Brief: Independent India’s First Budget

3 February 2022By

Breaking down Independent India's First Budget.

3 mins

Desk Brief: ‘We the People in the Name of Gandhi’?

31 January 2022By

What was the debate regarding the Preamble of the Indian Constitution?

3 mins

Desk Brief: 2021 with Constitutionofindia.net

31 January 2022By

We step back and review 2021 through a curated set of Constitutionofindia.net pieces.

3 mins

Tightening the Noose on Interfaith Marriage

31 January 2022By

What is the impact of the fusing of anti-conversion bills with interfaith marriage legislation?

2 mins

Finding Bose in the Indian Constitution

26 January 2022By and

How did the views of Subhas Chandra Bose manifest in the Constituent Assembly Debates?

2 mins

Should Minors Have the Right to Convert?

4 January 2022By

The Indian Constituent Assembly engages with adulthood in the context of religious conversion.

2 mins

Desk Brief: What Counts as Forced Labour?

31 December 2021By

The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery is observed on 2 December to bring the world's attention to forced labour.

2 mins

Desk Brief: Is Religious Conversion about Individuals or Groups?

24 December 2021By

How was religious conversion debated on in the Constituent Assembly? Was it an individual right or something represented as a group?

2 mins

Desk Brief: Opposing Democracy?

16 December 2021By

How our Constitution framers envisioned the functioning of a robust Parliament with a strong opposition

2 mins

B.R. Ambedkar’s Justification To Restrict Fundamental Rights

10 December 2021By

B.R Ambedkar was faced with criticism from his Constituent Assembly colleagues: why were there restrictions on Fundamental Rights in the Draft Constitution?

2 mins

Desk Brief: The 25th Amendment

30 November 2021By

We examine the development of the right to property from a Fundamental Right to a constitutional right.

2 mins

Desk Brief: The Day We Adopted Our Constitution

26 November 2021By

The day the Indian Constituent Assembly adopted the Indian Constitution on 26 November 1949 - how it happened.

3 mins

This Month in Constitution-Making (November 1946): Was The Constituent Assembly Valid Despite Muslim League Absence?

8 November 2021By

Did the absence of the Muslim League from the Indian Constituent Assembly test its validity of existence?

3 mins

Does Affirmative Action Conflict with Efficiency?

14 October 2021By

What were the reasons given by our Constitution framers when debating the impact and consequences of affirmative action?

2 mins

This Month In Constitution Making (October, 1949): Constituent Assembly Adds Contempt of Court to Free Speech Limitations

5 October 2021By

Why did TT Krishnamachari want to add 'contempt of court' as a constraint to the Fundamental right of Freedom of speech?

2 mins

Desk Brief: Article 372 and Laiq Ali’s Escape

30 September 2021By

The connection between newly independent India's detention laws and the powers of the President of India.

2 mins

Affirmative Action in Indian Constitutional History: An Overview

30 September 2021By

How has the concept of affirmative action been discussed through Indian history, especially during the Indian freedom struggle and in Historical Constitutions?

3 mins

Desk Brief: Why Hindi is not our National Language

27 September 2021By

How did the Constituent Assembly decide on Hindi's inclusion as an official language of the country?

3 mins

Desk Brief: Extending Affirmative Action to the Supreme Court?

20 September 2021By

Is it time that we now have laws that ensure that the Supreme Court is more inclusive and comprise all marginalised communities - not just gender diversity?

3 mins

This Month in Constitution-Making (September 1949): Constituent Assembly Settles on a Name for the Union

20 September 2021By

Read about how our Constitution framers debated on the naming of the country as per Article 1 of the Constitution of India 1950

2 mins