Remarks

On 21st February 1948, the Drafting Committee submitted the Draft Constitution of India to the President of the Constituent Assembly. Fourth months earlier, the Committee had received a Draft Constitution prepared by the Assembly’s constitutional adviser – B.N. Rau. Rau’s Draft reflected the decisions taken by the Assembly on the reports of various Committees that were tasked with drawing up constitutional provisions on specific parts of the Constitution. The Drafting Committee, between October 1947 and February 1948, scrutinised, tweaked and added to Rau’s Draft and what emerged from this process was the Draft Constitution of India, 1948 (henceforth ‘Draft’).

The Draft consisted of 315 articles – organised around eighteen ‘Parts’, and eight 'Schedules'. It touched upon a range of topics that one would expect in a constitutional document that included the structure of government, rights and centre-state relations. Wherever the Draft moved significantly away from B.N Rau’s Draft, or there was controversy or lack of clarity on some provision, the Drafting Committee placed footnotes and brief explanations in the document.

It is important to note that this Draft was the first blueprint of the Indian Constitution that was publicly available. It was widely circulated to members of the Assembly, provincial governments, central ministries, the Supreme Court and High Courts, and the general public along with an invitation to provide feedback and suggestions. In March and October 1948, the Drafting Committee reviewed and took decisions on comments it received and prepared amendments.

On 4 November 1948, B.R. Ambedkar, Chairman of the Drafting Committee, formally introduced the Draft in the Assembly – every member had a copy along with the set of amendments recommended by the Drafting Committee in light of comments and suggestions it received. In his speech, Ambedkar gave an overview of the Draft and addressed some controversies that emerged around it. The initial reactions of the Assembly members to the Draft were mixed. While some applauded it, others were disappointed – for e.g. members were unhappy that the Draft did not base the administrative and political structure of India on principles of Panchayati Raj.

On 15th November 1948, the Assembly took up, article by article, all the provisions of the Draft for debate and discussion. It considered, deliberated and took decisions on numerous amendments moved by individual members of the Assembly and the Drafting Committee. This process went up till October 17th after which the Drafting Committee revised the Draft based on the decisions of the Assembly and produced a second version on 14th November which it put to the Assembly for another reading.

It is important to note that the Assembly’s deliberations over the Draft Constitution (including the revised version) formed the bulk of the Constituent Assembly debates and the overall constitution-making process: out of 165 sittings of the Constituent Assembly, 114 were spent debating this Draft. The Draft Constitution was finally adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949 as the Constitution of India.

TEXT OF DRAFT CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

As submitted by the Drafting Committee to the President of the Constituent Assembly

PREAMBLE

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WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

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JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

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LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

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EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;

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and to promote among them all

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FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity of the Nation;

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IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this_____ of (day of May, 1948 A.D.), do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

PART I

THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY AND JURISDICTION

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1. (1) India shall be a Union of States.

(2) The States shall mean the States for the time being specified in Parts I, II and III of the First Schedule.

(3) The territory of India shall comprise-

(a) The territories of the States;

(b) The territories for the time being specified in Part IV of the First

Schedule; and

(c) Such other territories as may be acquired.

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2. Parliament may, from time to time, by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

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3. Parliament may by law-

(a) Form a new State by separation of territory from a State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States;

(b) Increase the area of any State;

(c) Diminish the area of any State;

(d) Alter the boundaries of any State;

(e) Alter the name of any State:

Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except by the Government of India and unless

(a) Either-

(i) A representation in that behalf has been made to the President by a majority of the representatives of the territory in the Legislature of the State from which the territory is to be separated or excluded; or

(ii) A resolution in that behalf has been passed by the Legislature of any State whose boundaries or name will be affected by the proposal to be contained in the Bill; and

(b) Where the proposal contained in the Bill affects the boundaries or name of any State, other than a State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule, the views of the Legislature of the State both with respect to the proposal to introduce the Bill and with respect to the provisions thereof have been ascertained by the President; and where such proposal affects the boundaries or name of any State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule, the previous consent of the State to the proposal has been obtained.

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4. (1) Any law referred to in article 2 or article 3 of this Constitution shall contain such provisions for the amendment of the First Schedule as may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of the law and may also contain such incidental and -consequential provisions as Parliament may deem necessary.

(2) No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 304.

PART II

CITIZENSHIP

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5. At the date of commencement of this Constitution-

(a) Every person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grandparents was born in the territory of India as defined in this Constitution and who has not made his permanent abode in any foreign State after the first day of April, 1947; and

(b) Every person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grandparents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted), or in Burma, Ceylon or Malaya, and who has his domicile in the territory of India as defined in this Constitution, shall be a citizen of India, provided that he has not acquired the citizenship of any foreign State before the date of commencement of this Constitution.

Explanation.- For the purposes of clause (b) of this article, a person shall be deemed to have his domicile in the territory of India-

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6. Parliament may, by law, make further provision regarding the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating thereto.

PART III

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

General

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7. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, "the State" includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities within the territory of India.

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8. (1) All laws in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in the territory of India, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.

(2) The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void:

Provided that nothing in this clause shall prevent the State from making any law for the removal of any inequality, disparity, disadvantage or discrimination arising out of any existing law.

(3) In this article, the expression "law" includes any Ordinance, order, bye-law, rule, regulation, notification, custom or usage having the force of law in the territory of India or any part thereof.

Rights of Equality

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9. (1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or any of them. In particular, no citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to-

(a) Access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment, or

(b) The use of wells, tanks 3, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of the revenues of the State or dedicated to the use of the general public.

(2) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.

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10. (1) There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters of employment under the State.

(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth or any of them, be ineligible for any office under the State.

(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens who, in the opinion of the State, are not adequately represented in the services under the State.

(4) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any law which provides that the incumbent of an office in connection with the affairs of any religious or denominational institution or any member of the governing body thereof shall be a person professing a particular religion or belonging to a particular denomination.

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11. "Untouchability" is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of "Untouchability" shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.

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12. (1) No title shall be conferred by the State.

(2) No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State.

(3) No person holding any office of profit or trust under the State shall, without the consent of the President, accept any present, emolument, title or office of any kind from or under any foreign State.

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13. (1) Subject to the other provisions of this article, all citizens shall have the right-

(a) To freedom of speech and expression;

(b) To assemble peaceably and without arms;

(c) To form associations or unions;

(d) To move freely throughout the territory of India;

(e) To reside and settle in any part of the territory of India;

(f) To acquire, hold and dispose of property; and

(g) To practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.

(2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) of this article shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, relating to libel, slander, defamation, sedition or any other matter which offends against decency. or morality or undermines the authority or foundation of the State.

(3) Nothing in sub-clause (b) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, imposing in the interests of public order restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause.

(4) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, imposing, in the interests of the general public, restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause.

(5) Nothing in sub-clauses (d), (e) and (f) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, imposing restrictions on the exercise of any of the rights conferred by the said sub-clauses either in the interests of the general public or for the protection of the interests of any aboriginal tribe.

(6) Nothing in sub-clause (g) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, imposing in the interests of public order, morality or health, restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause and in particular prescribing, or empowering any authority to prescribe, the professional or technical qualifications necessary for practising any profession or carrying on any occupation, trade or business.

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14. (1) No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the act charged as an offence, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law at the time of the commission of the offence.

(2) No person shall be punished for the same offence more than once.

(3) No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.

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15. No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law, nor shall any person be denied equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.

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16. Subject to the provisions of article 244 of this Constitution and of any law made by Parliament, trade, commerce and intercourse throughout the territory of India shall be free.

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17. (1) Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.

(2) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service for public purposes. In imposing such service the State shall not make any discrimination on the ground of race, religion, caste or class.

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18. No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.

Rights Relating to Religion

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19. (1) Subject to public order, morality and health and to the other provisions of this Part, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion.

Explanation.-The wearing and carrying of kirpans shall be deemed to be included in the profession of the Sikh religion.

(2) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any existing law or preclude the State from making any law-

(a) Regulating or restricting any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice;

(b) For social welfare and reform or for throwing open Hindu religious institutions of a public character to any class or section of Hindus.

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20. Every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right-

(a) To establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes;

(b) To manage its own affairs in matters of religion;

(c) To own and acquire movable and immovable property; and

(d) To administer such property in accordance with law.

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21. No person may be compelled to pay any taxes, the proceeds of which are specifically appropriated in payment of expenses for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious denomination.

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22. (1) No religious instruction shall be provided by the State in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds:

Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to an educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which requires that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institution.

(2) No person attending any educational institution recognised by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or in any premises attached thereto unless such person, or if such person is a minor, his guardian has given his consent thereto.

(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent any community or denomination from providing religious instruction for pupils of that community or denomination in an educational institution outside its working hours.

Cultural and Educational Rights

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23. (1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script and culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.

(2) No minority whether based on religion, community or language shall be discriminated against in regard to the admission of any person belonging to such minority into any educational institution maintained by the State.

(3) (a) All minorities whether based on religion, community or language shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.

(b) The State shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority, whether based on religion, community or language.

Right to Property

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24. (1) No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.

(2) No property, movable or immovable, including any interest in, or in any company owning, any commercial or industrial undertaking, shall be taken possession of or acquired for public purposes under any law authorising the taking of such possession or such acquisition, unless the law provides for the payment of compensation for the property taken possession of or acquired and either fixes the amount of the compensation, or specifies the principles on which, and the manner in which, the compensation is to be determined.

(3) Nothing in clause (2) of this article shall affect-

(a) The provisions of any existing law, or

(b) The provisions of any law which the State may hereafter make for the purpose of imposing or levying any tax or for the promotion of public health or the prevention of danger to life or property.

Right to Constitutional Remedies

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25. (1) The right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred by this Part is guaranteed.

(2) The Supreme Court shall have power to issue directions or orders in the nature of the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this Part.

(3) Parliament may by law empower any other court to exercise within the local limits of its jurisdiction all or any of the powers exercisable by the Supreme Court under clause (2) of this article.

(4) The rights guaranteed by this article shall not be suspended except as otherwise provided for by this Constitution.

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26. Parliament may by law determine to what extent any of the rights guaranteed in this Part shall in their application to the members of the Armed Forces or the Forces charged with the maintenance of public order be restricted or abrogated so as to ensure the proper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline among them.  

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27. Notwithstanding anything elsewhere contained in this Constitution, Parliament shall have, and the Legislature of a State for the time being specified in Part I or Part III of the First Schedule shall not have, power to make laws-

(a) With respect to any of the matters which under this Part are required to be provided for by legislation by Parliament, and

(b) For prescribing punishment for those acts which are declared to be offences under this Part; and Parliament shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this

Constitution, make laws to provide for such matters and for prescribing punishment for such acts:

Provided that any law in force in the territory of India or in any part thereof with respect to any of the matters referred to in clause (a) of this article or providing for punishment for any act which is declared to be an offence under this Part shall continue in force therein until altered or repealed or amended by Parliament or other competent authority.

PART IV

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

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28. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, "the State" has the same meaning as in Part III of this Constitution.

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29. The provisions contained in this Part shall not be enforceable by any court, but the principles therein laid down are nevertheless fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws.

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30. The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life.

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31. The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing-

(i) That the citizens, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means of livelihood;

(ii) That the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to subserve the common good;

(iii) That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment;

(iv) That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women;

(v) That the strength and health of workers, men and women and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength;

(vi) That childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.

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32. The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness, disablement, and other cases of undeserved want.

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33. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.

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34. The State shall endeavour to secure, by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way, to all workers, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities.

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35. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.

.

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36. Every citizen is entitled to free primary education and the State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.

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37. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the scheduled tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.

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38. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties.

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39. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest, declared by Parliament by law to be of national importance, from spoliation, destruction, removal, disposal or export, as the case may be, and to preserve and maintain according to law made by Parliament all such monuments or places or objects.

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40. The State shall promote international peace and security by the prescription of open, just and honourable relations between nations, by the firm establishment of the understandings of international law as the actual rule of conduct among governments and by the maintenance of justice and respect for treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.

PART V

THE UNION

CHAPTER I

The Executive

The President and Vice-president

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41. There shall be a President of India.

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42. (1) The executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and may be exercised by him in accordance with the Constitution and the law.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the supreme command of the Defence Forces of India shall be vested in the President and the exercise thereof shall be regulated by law.

(3) Nothing in this article shall-

(a) Be deemed to transfer to the President any functions conferred by any existing law on the Government of any State or other authority; or

(b) Prevent Parliament from conferring by law functions on authorities other than the President.

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43. The President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of-

(a) The members of both Houses of Parliament, and

(b) The elected members of the Legislatures of the States.

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44. (1) As far as practicable, there shall be uniformity in the scale of representation of the different States at the election of the President.

(2) For the purpose of securing such uniformity the number of votes which each elected member of Parliament and of the Legislature of each State is entitled to cast at such election shall be determined in the following manner :-

(a) Every elected member of the Legislature of a State shall have as many votes as there are multiples of one thousand in the quotient obtained by dividing the population of the State by the total number of elected members of the Legislature;

(b) If, after taking the said multiples of one thousand, the remainder is not less than five hundred, then the vote of each member referred to in sub-clause

(a) of this clause shall be further increased by one;

(c) Each elected member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of the Legislatures of the States under sub-clauses (a) and (b) of this clause by the total number of such members, fractions exceeding one-half being counted as one and other fractions being disregarded.

(3) The election of the President shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot.

Explanation.-In this article, the expression "the Legislature of a State" means, where the Legislature is bicameral, the Lower House of the Legislature, and the expression "population" means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census.

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45. The President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office:

Provided that-

(a) The President may, by resignation under his hand addressed to the Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker of the House of the People, resign his office;

(b) The President may, for violation of the Constitution, be removed from office by impeachment in the manner provided in article 50 of this Constitution:

(c) The President shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.

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46. A person who holds, or who has held, office as President shall be eligible for re-election to that office once, but only once.

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47. (1) No person shall be eligible for election as President unless he-

(a) Is a citizen of India,

(b) Has completed the age of thirty-five years, and

(c) Is qualified for election as a member of the House of the People.

(2) A person shall not be eligible for election as President if he holds any office or position of emolument under the Government of India or the Government of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.

Explanation.- For the purposes of this clause a person shall not be deemed to hold any office or position of emolument by reason only that-

(a) He is a minister either for India or for any State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule; or

(b) He is a minister for any State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule, if he is responsible to the Legislature of the State, or, where there are two Houses of the Legislature of the State, to the Lower House of the Legislature, and if not less than three-fourths of the members of the Legislature or House, as the case may be, are elected.

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48. (1) The President shall not be a member either of Parliament or of the Legislature of any State, and if a member of Parliament or of the Legislature of any State be elected President, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in Parliament or such Legislature, as the case may be, on the date on which he enters upon his office as President.

(2) The President shall not hold any other office or position of emolument.

(3) The President shall have an official residence and there shall be paid to the President such emoluments and allowances as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments and allowances as are specified in the Second Schedule.

(4) The emoluments and allowances of the President shall not be diminished during his term of office.

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49. Every President and every person acting as President or discharging the functions of the President shall before entering upon his office make and subscribe in the presence of the Chief Justice of India an affirmation or oath in the following form, that is to say-

"I, A. B., do solemnly affirm (or swear) that I will faithfully execute the office of President (or discharge the functions of the President) of India and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of India."

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50. (1) When a President is to be impeached for violation of the Constitution, the charge shall be preferred by either House of Parliament.

(2) No such charge shall be preferred unless-

(a) The proposal to prefer such charge is contained in a resolution which has been moved after a notice in writing signed by not less than thirty members of the House has been given of their intention to move the resolution, and

(b) Such resolution has been supported by not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House.

(3) When a charge has been so preferred by either House of Parliament, the other House shall investigate the charge or cause the charge to be investigated and the President shall have the right to appear and to be represented at such investigation.

(4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed, supported by not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as from the date on which the resolution is so passed.

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51. (1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall be completed before the expiration of the term.

(2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President occurring by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after, and in no case later than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy; and the person elected to fill the vacancy shall be entitled to hold office for the full term of five years as provided in article 45 of this Constitution.

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52. There shall be a Vice-President of India.

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53. The Vice-President shall be ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States and shall not hold any other office or position of emolument:

Provided that during any period when the Vice-President acts as President or discharges the functions of the President under article 54 of this Constitution, he shall not perform the duties of the office of Chairman of the Council of States.

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54. (1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the Vice-President shall act as President until the date on which a new President elected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter to fill such vacancy enters upon his office.

(2) When the President is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice-President shall discharge his functions until the date on which the President resumes his duties.

(3) The Vice-President shall, during, and in respect of, the period while he is so acting as, or discharging the functions of the, President, have all the powers and immunities of the President.

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55. (1) The Vice-President shall be elected by the members of both Houses of Parliament assembled at a joint meeting in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot.

(2) The Vice-President shall not be a member either of Parliament or of the Legislature of any State, and if a member of Parliament or of the Legislature of any State be elected Vice-President, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in Parliament or such Legislature, as the case may be, on the date on which he enters upon his office as Vice-President.

(3) No person shall be eligible for election as Vice-President unless he-

(a) Is a citizen of India;

(b) Has completed the age of thirty-five years; and

(c) Is qualified for election as a member of the Council of States.

(4) A person shall not be eligible for election as Vice-President if he holds any office or position of emolument under the Government of India or the Government of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this clause, a person shall not be deemed to hold any office or position of emolument by reason only that-

(a) He is a minister either for India or for any State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule; or

(b) He is a minister for any State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule, if he is responsible to the Legislature of the State, or, where there are two Houses of the Legislature of the State, to the Lower House of such Legislature, and if not less than three-fourths of the members of such Legislature or House, as the case may be, are elected.

(5) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of Vice-President shall be completed before the expiration of the term.

(6) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of Vice-President occurring by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after the occurrence of the vacancy, and the person elected to fill such vacancy shall be entitled to hold office for the full term of five years as provided in article 56 of this Constitution.

DC.56

Document Name > Paragraph Number

56. The Vice-President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office:

Provided that-

(a) A Vice-President may, by writing under his hand addressed to the

President, resign his office;

(b) A Vice-President may be removed from his office for incapacity or want of confidence by a resolution of the Council of States passed by a majority of all the then members of the Council and agreed to by the House of the People; but no resolution for the purpose of this clause shall be moved unless at least fourteen days' notice has been given of the intention to move the resolution;

(c) A Vice-President shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.

DC.57

Document Name > Paragraph Number

57. Parliament may make such provision as it thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the President in any contingency not provided for in this Chapter.

DC.58

Document Name > Paragraph Number

58. (1) All doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a President or Vice-President shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision shall be final.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may by law regulate any matter relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President.

DC.59

Document Name > Paragraph Number

59. (1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence-

(a) In all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial;

(b) In all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence under any law relating to a matter with respect to which Parliament has, and the Legislature of the State in which the offence is committed has not, power to make laws:

(c) In all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death.

(2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) of this article shall affect the power conferred by law on any officer of the Armed Forces of India to suspend, remit or commute a sentence passed by a Court Martial.

(3) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of clause (1) of this article shall affect the power to suspend, remit or commute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor or the Ruler of the State under any law for the time being in force.

DC.60

Document Name > Paragraph Number

60. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of the Union shall extend-

(a) To the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws; and

(b) To the exercise of such rights, authority and jurisdiction as are exercisable by the Government of India by virtue of any treaty or agreement: Provided that the executive power referred to in sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not, save as expressly provided in this Constitution or in any law made by Parliament, extend in any State to matters with respect to which the Legislature of the State has also power to make laws.

(2) Until otherwise provided by Parliament, a State and any officer or authority of a State may, notwithstanding anything contained in this article, continue to exercise in matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws for that State such executive power or functions as the State or officer or authority thereof could exercise immediately before the commencement of this Constitution.

Council of Ministers

DC.61

Document Name > Paragraph Number

61. (1) There shall be a Council of ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President in the exercise of his functions.

(2) The question whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered by ministers to the President shall not be inquired into in any court.

DC.62

Document Name > Paragraph Number

62. (1) The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President and the other ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.

(2) The ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.

(3) The Council shall be collectively responsible to the House of the People.

(4) Before a minister enters upon his office, the President shall administer to him the oaths of office and of secrecy according to the forms set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule.

(5) A minister who, for any period of six consecutive months, is not a member of either House of Parliament shall at the expiration of that period cease to be a minister.

(6) The salaries and allowances of ministers shall be such as Parliament may from time to time by law determine and, until Parliament so determine, shall be as specified in the Second Schedule.

The Attorney-General for India

DC.63

Document Name > Paragraph Number

63. (1) The President shall appoint a person, who is qualified to be appointed a judge of the Supreme Court, to be Attorney-General for India.

(2) It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the President, and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other law for the time being in force.

(3) In the performance of his duties the Attorney-General shall have right of audience in all courts in the territory of India.

(4) The Attorney-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shall receive such remuneration as the President may determine.

Conduct of Government Business

DC.64

Document Name > Paragraph Number

64. (1) All executive action of the Government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President.

(2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the President shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the President, and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the President.

DC.65

Document Name > Paragraph Number

65. It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister-

(a) To communicate to the President all decisions of the Council of ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation:

(b) To furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation as the President may call for; and

(c) If the President so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Council of ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a minister but which has not been considered by the Council.

CHAPTER II

PARLIAMENT

General

DC.66

Document Name > Paragraph Number

66. There shall be a Parliament for the Union which shall consist of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the Council of States and the House of the People.

DC.67

Document Name > Paragraph Number

67. (1) The Council of States shall consist of two hundred and fifty members of whom-

(a) Fifteen members shall be nominated by the President in the manner provided in clause (2) of this article; and

(b) The remainder shall be representatives of the States:

Provided that the total number of representatives of the States for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule shall not exceed forty per cent of this remainder.

(2) The members to be nominated by the President under sub-clause (a) of clause (1) of this article shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as the following, namely,-

(a) Literature, art, science and education;

(b) Agriculture, fisheries and allied subjects;

(c) Engineering and architecture;

(d) Public administration and social services.

(3) The representatives of each State for the time being specified in

Part I or Part III of the First Schedule in the Council of States shall-

(a) Where the Legislature of the State has two Houses, be elected by the elected members of the Lower House;

(b) Where the Legislature of the State has only one House, be elected by the elected members of that House; and

(c) Where there is no House of the Legislature for the State, be chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe.

(4) The representatives of the States for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule in the Council of States shall be chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe.

(5) (a) Subject to the provisions of articles 292 and 293 of this Constitution, the House of the People shall consist of not more than five hundred representatives of the people of the territories of the States directly chosen by the voters.

(b) For the purpose of sub-clause (a), the States of India shall be divided, grouped or formed into territorial constituencies and the number of representatives to be allotted to each such constituency shall be so determined as to ensure that there shall be not less than one representative for every 750,000 of the population and not more than one representative for every 500,000 of the population:

Provided that the ratio of the total number of representatives of the States for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule to their total population shall not be in excess of the ratio of the total number of representatives of the States for the time being specified in Parts I and II of that Schedule to the total population of such States.

(c) The ratio between the number of members to be elected at any time for each territorial constituency and the population of that constituency as ascertained at the last preceding census shall, so far as practicable, be the same throughout India.

(6) The election to the House of the People shall be on the basis of adult suffrage; that is to say, every citizen who is not less than twenty one years of age and is not otherwise disqualified under this Constitution or under any Act of Parliament on the ground of non-residence, unsoundness of mind, crime or corrupt or illegal practice shall be entitled to be registered as a voter at such elections.

 (7) Parliament may, by law, provide for the representation in the House of the People of territories other-than States.

(8) Upon the completion of each census the representation of the several States in the Council of States and of the several territorial constituencies in the House of the People shall, subject to the provisions of article 289 of this Constitution, be readjusted by such authority, in such manner and with effect from such date as Parliament may, by law, determine.

(9) When States for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule are grouped together for the purpose of returning representatives to the Council of States, the entire group shall be deemed to be a single State for the purposes of this article.

DC.68

Document Name > Paragraph Number

68. (1) The Council of States shall not be subject to dissolution, but as nearly as possible one-third of the members thereof shall retire as soon as may be on the expiration of every second year in accordance with the provisions made in that behalf by Parliament by law.

(2) The House of the People, unless sooner dissolved, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no longer, and the expiration of the said period of five years shall operate as the dissolution of the House:

Provided that the said period may, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, be extended by the President for a period not exceeding one year at a time and not extending in any case beyond a period of six months after the Proclamation has ceased to operate.

DC.69

Document Name > Paragraph Number

69. (1) The Houses of Parliament shall be summoned to meet twice at least in every year, and six months shall not intervene between their last sitting in one session and the date appointed for their first sitting in the next session.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this article, the President may from time to time-

(a) Summon the Houses or either House of Parliament to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit;

(b) Prorogue the Houses;

(c) Dissolve the House of the People.

DC.70

Document Name > Paragraph Number

70. (1) The President may address either House of Parliament or both Houses assembled together, and for that purpose require the attendance of members.

(2) The President may send messages to either House of Parliament, whether with respect to a Bill then pending in Parliament or otherwise, and a House to which any message is so sent shall with all convenient despatch consider any matter required by the message to be taken into consideration.

DC.71

Document Name > Paragraph Number

71. (1) At the commencement of every session the President shall address both Houses of Parliament assembled together and inform Parliament of the causes of its summons.

(2) Provision shall be made by the rules regulating the procedure of either House for the allotment of time for discussion of the matters referred to in such address and for the precedence of such discussion over other business of the House.

DC.72

Document Name > Paragraph Number

72. Every minister and the Attorney-General of India shall have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, either House, any joint sitting of the Houses and any committee of Parliament of which he may be named a member, but shall not by virtue of this article be entitled to vote.

Officers of Parliament

DC.73

Document Name > Paragraph Number

73. (1) The Vice-President of India shall be ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States.

(2) The Council of States shall, as soon as may be, choose a member of the Council to be Deputy Chairman thereof, and so often as the office of Deputy Chairman becomes vacant the Council shall choose another member to be Deputy Chairman thereof.

DC.74

Document Name > Paragraph Number

74. A member holding office as Deputy Chairman of the Council of States-

(a). Shall vacate his office if he ceases to be a member of the Council;

(b) May at any time, by writing under his hand addressed to the Chairman, resign his office; and

(c) May be removed from his office for incapacity or want of confidence by a resolution of the Council passed by a majority of all the then members of the Council:

Provided that no resolution for the purpose of clause (c) of this article shall be moved unless at least fourteen days' notice has been given of the intention to move the resolution.

DC.75

Document Name > Paragraph Number

75. (1) While the office of Chairman is vacant, or during any period when the Vice-President is acting as, or discharging the functions of the, President under article 54 of this Constitution, the duties of the office shall be performed by the Deputy Chairman, or if the office of Deputy Chairman is also vacant, by such member of the Council of States as the President may appoint for the purpose.

(2) During the absence of the Chairman from any sitting of the Council of States, the Deputy Chairman or, if he is also absent, such person as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the Council, or, if no such person is present, such other person as may be determined by the Council, shall act as Chairman.

DC.76

Document Name > Paragraph Number

76. The House of the People shall, as soon as may be, choose two members of the House to be respectively Speaker and Deputy Speaker thereof, and, so often as the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker becomes vacant, the House shall choose another member to be Speaker or Deputy Speaker, as the case may be.

DC.77

Document Name > Paragraph Number

77. A member holding office as Speaker or Deputy Speaker of the House of the People-

(a) Shall vacate his office if he ceases to be a member of the House of the People;

(b) May at any time by writing under his hand addressed, if such member is the Speaker, to the Deputy Speaker, and if such member is the Deputy Speaker, to the Speaker, resign his office; and

(c) May be removed from his office for incapacity or want of confidence by a resolution of the House of the People passed by a majority of all the then members of the House:

Provided that no resolution for the purpose of clause (c) of this article shall be moved unless at least fourteen days' notice has been given of the intention to move the resolution:

Provided further that, whenever the House of the People is dissolved, the Speaker shall not vacate his office until immediately before the first meeting of the House of the People after the dissolution.

DC.78

Document Name > Paragraph Number

78. (1) While the office of Speaker is vacant, the duties of the office shall be performed by the Deputy Speaker, or if the office of Deputy Speaker is also vacant, by such member of the House of the People as the President may appoint for the purpose.

(2) During the absence of the Speaker from any sitting of the House of the People, the Deputy Speaker or, if he is also absent, such person as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the House, or, if no such person is present, such other person as may be determined by the House, shall act as Speaker.

DC.79

Document Name > Paragraph Number

79. There shall be paid to the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States, and to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People, such salaries and allowances as may be respectively fixed by Parliament by law, and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such salaries and allowances as are specified in the Second Schedule.

Conduct of Business

DC.80

Document Name > Paragraph Number

80. (1) Save as provided in this Constitution, all questions at any sitting or joint sitting of the Houses shall be determined by a majority of votes of the members present and voting, other than the Chairman or Speaker or person acting as such.

The Chairman or Speaker or person acting as such shall not vote in the first instance, but shall have and exercise a casting vote in the case of an equality of votes.

(2) Either House of Parliament shall have power to act notwithstanding any vacancy in the membership thereof, and any proceedings in Parliament shall be valid notwithstanding that it is discovered subsequently that some person who was not entitled so to do sat or voted or otherwise took part in the proceedings.

(3) If at any time during a meeting of a House, less than one-sixth of the total number of members of the House are present, it shall be the duty of the Chairman or Speaker or person acting as such either to adjourn the House, or to suspend the meeting until at least one-sixth of the members are present.

Disqualifications of Members

DC.81

Document Name > Paragraph Number

81. Every member of either House of Parliament shall, before taking his seat, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, a declaration according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule.

DC.82

Document Name > Paragraph Number

82. (1) No person shall be a member of both Houses of Parliament and provision shall be made by Parliament by law for the vacation by a person who is chosen a member of both Houses of his seat in one House or the other.

(2) If a member of either House of Parliament-

(a) Becomes subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in clause (1) of the next succeeding article; or

(b) Resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to the Chairman or the Speaker, as the case may be, his seat shall thereupon become vacant.

(3) If for a period of sixty days a member of either House of Parliament is without permission of the House absent from all meetings thereof, the House may declare his seat vacant:

Provided that in computing the said period of sixty days no account shall be taken of any period during which the House is prorogued or is adjourned for more than four consecutive days.

DC.83

Document Name > Paragraph Number

83. (1) A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of either House of Parliament-

(a) If he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State other than an office declared by Parliament by law not to disqualify its holder;

(b) If he is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court;

(c) If he is an un-discharged insolvent;

(d) If he is under any acknowledgment of allegiance or adherence to a foreign power, or is a subject or a citizen or entitled to the rights or privileges of a subject or a citizen of a foreign power; and

(e) If he is so disqualified by or under any law made by Parliament.

(2) For the purposes of this article a person shall not be deemed to hold an office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State by reason only that-

(a) He is a minister either for India or for any State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule; or

(b) He is a minister for any State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule, if he is responsible to the Legislature of the State, or where there are two Houses of the Legislature of the State, to the Lower House of such Legislature and if not less than three-fourths of the members of such Legislature or House, as the case may be, are elected.

DC.84

Document Name > Paragraph Number

84. If a person sits or votes as a member of either House of Parliament before he has complied with the requirements of article 81 of this Constitution, or when he knows that he is not qualified, or that he is disqualified for membership thereof, or that he is prohibited from so doing by the provisions of any law made by Parliament, he shall be liable in respect of each day on which he so sits or votes to a penalty of five hundred rupees to be recovered as a debt due to the Government of India.

Privileges and Immunities of Members

DC.85

Document Name > Paragraph Number

85. (1) Subject to the rules and standing orders regulating the procedure of Parliament, there shall be freedom of speech in Parliament.

(2) No member of Parliament shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or any committee thereof, and no person shall be so liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of either House of Parliament of any report, paper, votes or proceedings.

(3) In other respects, the privileges and immunities of members of the Houses shall be such as may from time to time be defined by Parliament by law, and, until so defined, shall be such as are enjoyed by the members of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom at the commencement of this Constitution.

(4) The provisions of clauses (1), (2) and (3) of this article shall apply in relation to persons who by virtue of this Constitution have the right to speak in, and otherwise take part in the proceedings of, a House of Parliament as they apply in relation to members of Parliament.

DC.86

Document Name > Paragraph Number

86. Members of either House of Parliament shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as may from time to time be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that respect is so made, allowances at such rates and upon such conditions as were immediately before the date of commencement of this Constitution applicable in the case of members of the Legislature of the Dominion of India.

Legislative Procedure

DC.87

Document Name > Paragraph Number

87. (1) Subject to the provisions of articles 89 and 97 of this Constitution with respect to Money Bills and other financial Bills, a Bill may originate in either House of Parliament.

(2) Subject to the provisions of articles 88 and 89 of this Constitution, a Bill shall not be deemed to have been passed by the Houses of Parliament unless it has been agreed to by both Houses, either without amendment or with such amendments only as are agreed to by both Houses.

(3) A Bill pending in Parliament shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation of the Houses.

(4) A Bill pending in the Council of States which has not been passed by the House of the People shall not lapse on a dissolution of the House of the People.

(5) A Bill which is pending in the House of the People or which having been passed by the House of the People is pending in the Council of States shall, subject to the provisions of article 88 of this Constitution, lapse on a dissolution of the House of the People.

DC.88

Document Name > Paragraph Number

88. (1) If after a Bill has been passed by one House and transmitted to the other House-

(a) The Bill is rejected by the other House; or

(b) The Houses have finally disagreed as to the amendments to be made in the Bill; or

(c) More than six months elapse from the date of the reception of the Bill by the other House without the Bill being passed by it, the President may, unless the Bill has lapsed by reason of a dissolution of the House of the People, notify to the Houses by message if they are sitting or by public notification if they are not sitting, his intention to summon them to meet in a joint sitting for the purpose of deliberating and voting on the Bill:

Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to a Money Bill.

(2) In reckoning any such period of six months as is referred to in clause (1) of this article, no account shall be taken of any time during which both Houses are prorogued or adjourned for more than four days.

(3) Where the President has under clause (1) of this article notified his intention of summoning the Houses to meet in a joint sitting, neither House shall proceed further with the Bill, but the President may at any time after the date of his notification summon the Houses to meet in a joint sitting for the purpose specified in the notification and, if he does so, the Houses shall meet accordingly.

(4) If at the joint sitting of the two Houses the Bill with such amendments, if any, as are agreed to in joint sitting, is passed by a majority of the total number of members of both Houses present and voting, it shall be deemed for the purposes of this Constitution to have been passed by both Houses:

Provided that at a joint sitting-

(a) If the Bill, having been passed by one House, has not been passed by the other House with amendments and returned to the House in which it originated, no amendment shall be proposed to the Bill other than such amendments (if any) as are made necessary by the delay in the passage of the Bill;

(b) If the Bill has been so passed and returned, only such amendments as aforesaid shall be proposed to the Bill and such other amendments as are relevant to the matters with respect to which the Houses have not agreed; and the decision of the person presiding as to the amendments which are admissible under this clause shall be final.

(5) A joint sitting may be held under this article and a Bill passed thereat, notwithstanding that a dissolution of the House of the People has intervened since the President notified his intention to summon the Houses to meet therein.

DC.89

Document Name > Paragraph Number

89. (1) A Money Bill shall not be introduced in the Council of States.

(2) After a Money Bill has been passed by the House of the People it shall be transmitted to the Council of States for its recommendations and the Council of States shall within a period of thirty days from the date of its receipt of the Bill return the Bill to the House of the People with its recommendations and the House of the People may thereupon either accept or reject all or any of the recommendations of the Council of States.

(3) If the House of the People accepts any of the recommendations of the Council of States, the Money Bill shall be deemed to have been passed by both Houses with the amendments recommended by the Council of States and accepted by the House of the People.

(4) If the House of the People does not accept any of the recommendations of the Council of States, the Money Bill shall be deemed to have been passed by both Houses in the form in which it was passed by the House of the People without any of the amendments recommended by the Council of States.

(5) If a Money Bill passed by the House of the People and transmitted to the Council of States for its recommendations is not returned to the House of the People within the said period of thirty days, it shall be deemed to have been passed by both Houses at the expiration of the said period in the form in which it was passed by the House of the People.

DC.90

Document Name > Paragraph Number

90. (1) For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters, namely:-

(a) The imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax;

(b) The regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the Government of India, or the amendment of the law with respect to any financial obligations undertaken or to be undertaken by the Government of India;

(c) Supply;

(d) The appropriation of the revenues of India;

(e) The declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the revenues of India or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure;

(f) The receipt of money on account of the revenues of India or the custody or issue of such money or the audit of the accounts of the Government of India; or

(g) Any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in items (a) to (f) of this clause.

(2) A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes.

(3) If any question arises whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the House of the People thereon shall be final.

(4) There shall be endorsed on every Money Bill when it is transmitted to the Council of States under the last preceding article, and when it is presented to the President for assent under the next succeeding article, the certificate of the Speaker of the House of the People signed by him that it is a Money Bill.

DC.91

Document Name > Paragraph Number

91. When a Bill has been passed by the Houses of Parliament, it shall be presented to the President, and the President shall declare either that he assents to the Bill, or that he withholds assent therefrom:

Provided that the President may, not later than six weeks after the presentation to him of a Bill for assent, return the Bill if it is not a Money Bill to the Houses with a message requesting that they will reconsider the Bill or any specified provision thereof, and, in particular, will consider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may recommend in his message, and the Houses shall reconsider the Bill accordingly.

Procedure in Financial Matters

DC.92

Document Name > Paragraph Number

92. (1) The President shall in respect of every financial year cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament a statement of the estimated receipts and expenditure of the Government of India for that year, in this Part of this Constitution referred to as the "annual financial statement".

(2) The estimates of expenditure embodied in the annual financial statement shall show separately-

(a) The sums required to meet expenditure described by this Constitution as expenditure charged upon the revenues of India; and

(b) The sums required to meet other expenditure proposed to be made from the revenues of India, and shall distinguish expenditure on revenue account from other expenditure.

(3) The following expenditure shall be expenditure charged on the revenues of India-

(a) The emoluments and allowances of the President and other expenditure relating to his office;

(b) The emoluments and allowances of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People;

(c) Debt charges for which the Government of India is liable including interest, sinking fund charges and redemption charges, and other expenditure relating to the raising of loans and the service and redemption of debt;

(d) (i) The salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of judges of the Supreme Court;

(ii) The pensions payable to or in respect of judges of the Federal Court;

(iii) The pensions payable to or in respect of judges of any High Court which exercises or immediately before the commencement of this Constitution exercised jurisdiction within any area included in the States for the time being specified in Parts I and II of the First Schedule;

(e) Any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or award of any court or arbitral tribunal; and

(f) Any other expenditure declared by this Constitution or by Parliament by law to be so charged.

DC.93

Document Name > Paragraph Number

93. (1) So much of the estimates as relates to expenditure charged upon the revenues of India shall not be submitted to the vote of Parliament, but nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the discussion in either House of Parliament of any of these estimates.

(2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the form of demands for grants to the House of the People and the House of the People shall have power to assent, or to refuse to assent to any demand, or to assent to any demand subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein.

(3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the President.

DC.94

Document Name > Paragraph Number

94. (1) The President shall authenticate by his signature a schedule specifying-

(a) The grants made by the House of the People under the last preceding article;

(b) The several sums required to meet the expenditure charged on the revenues of India, but not exceeding in any case, the sum shown in the statement previously laid before Parliament.

(2) The schedule so authenticated shall be laid before the House of the

People, but shall not be open to discussion or vote in Parliament.

(3) Subject to the provisions of the next two succeeding articles, no expenditure from the revenues of India shall be deemed to be duly authorised unless it is specified in the schedule so authenticated.

DC.95

Document Name > Paragraph Number

95. If in respect of any financial year further expenditure from the revenues of India becomes necessary over and above the expenditure theretofore authorised for that year, the President shall cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament a supplementary statement showing the estimated amount of that expenditure, and the provisions of the preceding articles shall have effect in relation to that statement and that expenditure as they have effect in relation to the annual financial statement and the expenditure mentioned therein.

DC.96

Document Name > Paragraph Number

96. If in any financial year expenditure from the revenues of India has been incurred on any service for which the vote of the House of the People is necessary in excess of the amount granted for that service and for that year, a demand for the excess shall be presented to the House of the People and the provisions of articles 93 and 94 of this Constitution shall have effect in relation to such demand as they have effect in relation to a demand for a grant.

DC.97

Document Name > Paragraph Number

97. (1) A Bill or amendment making provision for any of the matters specified in items (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 90 of this Constitution shall not be introduced or moved except on the recommendation of the President and a Bill making such provision shall not be introduced in the Council of States:

Provided that no recommendation shall be required under this clause for the moving of an amendment making provision for the reduction or abolition of any tax.

(2) A Bill or amendment shall not be deemed to make provision for any of the matters aforesaid by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes.

(3) A Bill which, if enacted and brought into operation, would involve expenditure from the revenues of India shall not be passed by either House of Parliament unless the President has recommended to that House the consideration of the Bill.

Procedure Generally

DC.98

Document Name > Paragraph Number

98. (1) Each House of Parliament may make rules for regulating, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, its procedure and the conduct of its business.

(2) Until rules are made under clause (1) of this article, the rules of procedure and standing orders in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution with respect to the Legislature of the Dominion of India shall have effect in relation to Parliament subject to such modifications and adaptations as may be made therein by the Chairman of the

Council of States or the Speaker of the House of the People, as the case may be.

(3) The President, after consultation with the Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker of the House of the People, may make rules as to the procedure with respect to joint sittings of, and communications between, the two Houses.

(4) At a joint sitting of the two Houses the Speaker of the House of the People, or in his absence such person as may be determined by rules of procedure made under clause (3) of this article, shall preside.

DC.99

Document Name > Paragraph Number

99. (1) In Parliament business shall be transacted in Hindi or English:

Provided that the Chairman of the Council of States or the Speaker of the House of the People, as the case may be, may permit any member who cannot adequately express himself in either language to address the House in his mother tongue.

(2) The Chairman of the Council of States or the Speaker of the House of the People may, whenever he thinks fit, make arrangements for making available in the Council of States or the House of the People, as the case may be, a summary in Hindi or English of the speech delivered by a member in any other language and such summary shall be included in the record of the proceedings of the House in which the speech has been delivered.

DC.100

Document Name > Paragraph Number

100. (1) No discussion shall take place in Parliament with respect to the conduct of any judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court in the discharge of his duties except upon a motion for presenting an address to the President praying for the removal of the judge as hereinafter provided.

(2) In this article the reference to a High Court shall be construed as including a reference to any court in a State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule which is a High Court for any of the purposes of Chapter IV of this Part.

DC.101

Document Name > Paragraph Number

101. (1) The validity of any proceedings in Parliament shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure.

(2) No officer or other member of Parliament in whom powers are vested by or under this Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining order, in Parliament shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of those powers.

CHAPTER III

Legislative Powers of the President

DC.102

Document Name > Paragraph Number

102. (1) If at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session, the President is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require.

(2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament assented to by the President, but every such Ordinance-

(a) Shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the re-assembly of Parliament, or, if before the expiration of that period resolutions disapproving it are passed by both Houses, upon the passing of the second of those resolutions; and

(b) May be withdrawn at any time by the President.

Explanation:--Where the Houses of Parliament are summoned to reassemble on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be reckoned from the later of those dates for the purposes of this clause.

(3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which Parliament would not under this Constitution be competent to enact, it shall be void.

CHAPTER IV

The Federal Judicature

DC.103

Document Name > Paragraph Number

103. (1) There shall be a Supreme Court of India consisting of a Chief Justice of India and such number of other judges not being less than seven as Parliament may by law prescribe.

(2) Every judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with such of the judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States as may be necessary for the purpose and shall hold office until he attains the age of sixty-five years:

Provided that in the case of appointment of a judge, other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of India shall always be consulted:

Provided further that-

(a) A judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office;

(b) A judge may be removed from his office in the manner provided in clause (4).

(3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a judge of the Supreme Court unless he is a citizen of India and-

(a) Has been for at least five years a judge of a High Court or of two or more such courts in succession; or

(b) Has been for at least ten years an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such courts in succession.

Explanation I:-In this clause 'High Court' means a High Court which exercises, or which before the commencement of this Constitution exercised, jurisdiction in any part of the territory of India.

Explanation II:-In computing for the purpose of this clause the period during which a person has been an advocate, any period during which a person held judicial office after he became an advocate, shall be included.

(4) A judge of the Supreme Court shall not be removed from his office except by an order of the President passed after an address supported by not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting has been presented to the President by both Houses of Parliament in the same session for such removal on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.

(5) Parliament may by law regulate the procedure for the presentation of an address and for the investigation and proof of the misbehaviour or incapacity of a judge under the last preceding clause.

(6) Every person appointed to be a judge of the Supreme Court shall, before he enters upon his office, make and subscribe before the President or some person appointed in that behalf by him a declaration according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule.

(7) No person who has held office as a judge of the Supreme Court shall plead or act in any court or before any authority within the territory of India.

DC.104

Document Name > Paragraph Number

104. The judges of the Supreme Court shall be entitled to such salaries and allowances, and to such rights in respect of leave and pensions, as may from time to time be fixed by or under law made by Parliament, and until they are so fixed shall be entitled to such salaries, allowances and rights in respect of leave of absence or pension as are specified in the Second Schedule:

Provided that neither the salary of a judge nor his rights in respect of leave of absence or pension shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.

DC.105

Document Name > Paragraph Number

105. When the office of Chief Justice of India is vacant or when the Chief Justice is, by reason of absence or otherwise, unable to perform the duties of his office, the duties of the office shall be performed by such one of the other judges of the court as the President may appoint for the purpose.

DC.106

Document Name > Paragraph Number

106. (1) If at any time there should not be a quorum of the judges of the Supreme Court available to hold or continue any session of the court, the Chief Justice may, after consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court concerned, request in writing the attendance at the sittings of the court, as an ad hoc judge, for such period as may be necessary, of a judge of a High Court to be nominated by the Chief Justice of India.

(2) It shall be the duty of the judge, who has been so nominated, in priority to other duties of his office, to attend the sittings of the Supreme Court at the time and for the period for which his attendance is required, and while so attending he shall have all the jurisdiction, powers and privileges, and shall discharge the duties, of a judge of the Supreme Court.

DC.107

Document Name > Paragraph Number

107. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter, the Chief Justice of India may at any time, subject to the provisions of this article, request any person who has held the office of a judge of the Supreme Court or of the Federal Court to sit and act as a judge of the Supreme Court, and every such person so requested shall, while so sitting and acting, have all the jurisdiction, powers and privileges of, but shall not otherwise be deemed to be, a judge of that court:

Provided that nothing in this article shall be deemed to require any such person as aforesaid to sit and act as a judge of that court unless he consents so to do.

DC.108

Document Name > Paragraph Number

108. The Supreme Court shall be a court of record and shall sit in Delhi and at such other place or places, if any, as the Chief Justice may, with the approval of the President, from time to time, appoint.

DC.109

Document Name > Paragraph Number

109. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Supreme Court shall, to the exclusion of any other Court, have original jurisdiction in any dispute-

(a) Between the Government of India and one or more States, or

(b) Between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more other States on the other; or

(c) Between two or more States, if in so far as the dispute involves any question (whether of law or fact) on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends:

Provided that the said jurisdiction shall not extend to-

(i) A dispute to which a State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule is a party, if the dispute arises out of any provision of a treaty, agreement, engagement, sanad or other similar instrument which was entered into or executed before the date of commencement of this Constitution and has, or has been, continued in operation after that date;

(ii) A dispute to which any State is a party, if the dispute arises out of any provision of a treaty, agreement, engagement, sanad or other similar instrument which provides that the said jurisdiction shall not extend to such a dispute.

DC.110

Document Name > Paragraph Number

110. (1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgment, decree or final order of a High Court in a State, whether in a civil, criminal or other proceeding, if the High Court certifies that the case involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution.

(2) Where the High Court has refused to give such a certificate, the Supreme Court may, if it is satisfied that the case involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution, grant special leave to appeal from such judgment, decree or final order.

(3) Where such a certificate is given, or such leave is granted, any party in the case may appeal to the Supreme Court not only on the ground that any such question as aforesaid has been wrongly decided, but also on any other ground.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this article, the expression "final order" includes an order deciding an issue which, if decided in favour of the appellant, would be sufficient for the final disposal of the case.

DC.111

Document Name > Paragraph Number

111. (1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from a judgment, decree or final order in a civil proceeding of a High Court in the territory of India except the States for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule, if the High Court certifies-

(a) That the amount or value of the subject-matter of the dispute in the court of first instance and still in dispute on appeal was and is not less than twenty thousand rupees; or

(b) That the judgment, decree or final order involves directly or indirectly some claim or question respecting property of the like amount or value; or

(c) That the case is a fit one for appeal to the Supreme Court; and, where the judgment, decree or final order appealed from affirms the decision of the court immediately below, in any case other than one referred to in clause (c), if the High Court further certifies that the appeal involves some substantial question of law.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in article 110 of this Constitution, any party appealing to the Supreme Court under clause (1) of this article may urge as one of the grounds in such appeal that the case involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution which has been wrongly decided.

DC.112

Document Name > Paragraph Number

112. The Supreme Court may, in its discretion, grant special leave to appeal from any judgment, decree or final order in any cause or matter, passed or made by any court or tribunal in the territory of India except the States for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule, in cases where the provisions of article 110 or article 111 of this Constitution do not apply.

DC.113

Document Name > Paragraph Number

113. (1) If in the course of any civil, criminal or other proceeding in a High Court in any State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule, any question as to the applicability or interpretation of any law of Parliament or of the Legislature of any State other than such State, which is material for the determination of any issue in such proceeding, arises, the High Court may, either of its own motion or on the application of any of the parties, draw up a statement of the case with particular reference to such question with its own opinion thereon and refer such question to the Supreme Court for opinion.

(2) The Supreme Court may, where any such High Court refuses to state a case under clause (1) of this article, require a case to be so stated.

(3) When a case is so stated either under clause (1) or under clause (2) of this article, the High Court shall stay all proceedings until the opinion of the Supreme Court is received.

(4) The Supreme Court shall, after giving the parties an opportunity of being heard, decide the question so referred, and shall cause a copy of its opinion to be transmitted to the High Court and such High Court. shall on receipt thereof proceed to dispose of the case in conformity with the opinion of the Supreme Court.

(5) The Supreme Court may at any stage return any case stated under this article in order that further facts may be stated therein.

DC.114

Document Name > Paragraph Number

114. (1) The Supreme Court shall have such further jurisdiction and powers with respect to any of the matters in the Union List as Parliament may by law confer.

(2) The Supreme Court shall have such further jurisdiction and powers with respect to any matter as the Government of India and any State may by special agreement confer, if Parliament by law provides for the exercise of such jurisdiction and powers by the Supreme Court.

DC.115

Document Name > Paragraph Number

115. Parliament may, by law, confer on the Supreme Court power to issue directions or orders in the nature of the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, or any of them, for any purposes other than those mentioned in clause (2) of article 25 (which relates to the enforcement of fundamental rights) of this Constitution.

DC.116

Document Name > Paragraph Number

116. Parliament may by law make provision for conferring upon the Supreme Court such supplemental powers not inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Constitution as may appear to be necessary or desirable for the purpose of enabling the court more effectively to exercise the jurisdiction conferred upon it by or under this Constitution.

DC.117

Document Name > Paragraph Number

117. The law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts within the territory of India.

DC.118

Document Name > Paragraph Number

118. (1) The Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it, and any decree so passed or order so made shall be enforceable throughout the territory of India in such manner as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament.

(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament the Supreme Court shall, as respects the whole of the territory of India, have all and every power to make any order for the purpose of securing the attendance of any person, the discovery or production of any documents, or the investigation or punishment of any contempt of itself.

DC.119

Document Name > Paragraph Number

119. (1) If at any time it appears to the President that a question of law or fact has arisen, or is likely to arise, which is of such a nature and such public importance that it is expedient to obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court upon it, he may refer the question to that court for consideration and the court may, after such hearing as it thinks fit, report to the President its opinion thereon.

(2) The President may, notwithstanding anything contained in clause (i) of the proviso to article 109 of this Constitution, refer a dispute of the kind mentioned in the said clause to the Supreme Court for decision, and the Supreme Court shall thereupon, after giving the parties an opportunity of being heard, decide the same and report the fact to the President.

DC.120

Document Name > Paragraph Number

120. All authorities, civil and judicial, in the territory of India shall act in aid of the Supreme Court.

DC.121

Document Name > Paragraph Number

121. (1) Subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament, the Supreme Court may from time to time, with the approval of the President, make rules for regulating generally the practice and procedure of the Court including-

(a) Rules as to the persons practising before the court,

(b) Rules as to the procedure for hearing appeals and other matters including the time within which appeals to the Court are to be entered and the time to be allowed to advocates appearing before the court to make their submissions in respect thereof,

(c) Rules as to the costs of and incidental to any proceedings in the court and as to the fees to be charged in respect of proceedings therein,

(d) Rules as to the granting of bail,

(e) Rules as to stay of proceedings, and

(f) Rules providing for the summary determination of any appeal which appears to the court to be frivolous or vexatious or brought for the purpose of delay.

(2) The minimum number of judges who are to sit for the purpose of deciding any case involving a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution, or for the purpose of hearing any reference under article 119 of this Constitution shall be five:

Provided that it shall be open to every judge to sit for the said purposes unless owing to illness, personal interest or other sufficient cause he is unable to do so.

(3) No opinion for the purpose of any report under article 119 of this Constitution and no judgment shall be delivered by the Supreme Court save in open court.

(4) No such report shall be made and no judgment shall be delivered by the Supreme Court save with the concurrence of a majority of the judges present at the hearing of the case, but nothing in this clause shall be deemed to prevent a judge who does not concur from delivering a dissenting opinion or judgment.

DC.122

Document Name > Paragraph Number

122. (1) The salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of the officers and servants of the Supreme Court shall be fixed by the Chief Justice of India in consultation with the President.

(2) The administrative expenses of the Supreme Court, including all salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of the officers and servants of the court, shall be charged upon the revenues of India, and any fees or other moneys taken by the court shall form part of those revenues.

DC.123

Document Name > Paragraph Number

123. (1) References in articles 103 and 106 of this Chapter to a High Court in, or exercising jurisdiction in, a State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule shall be construed as references to any court which the President may, upon being satisfied after consultation with the Supreme Court and the Ruler of the State that such court is a court comparable to any of the High Courts in the States for the time being specified in Part I of that Schedule, declare to be a High Court for the purposes of those articles.

(2) References in articles 110 and 113 of this Chapter to a High Court. in a State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule shall be construed as references to the court of final jurisdiction in the State with regard to the proceeding in respect of which an appeal or reference is provided for in those articles.

CHAPTER V

Auditor-General of India

DC.124

Document Name > Paragraph Number

124. (1) There shall be an Auditor-General of India, who shall be appointed by the President and shall only be removed from office in like manner and on the like grounds as a judge of the Supreme Court.

(2) The salary, allowances and other conditions of service of the Auditor- General shall be such as may be determined by Parliament by law and until they are so determined shall be as specified in the Second Schedule:

Provided that neither the salary of an Auditor-General nor his rights in respect of leave of absence, pension or age of retirement shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.

(3) The Auditor-General shall not be eligible for further office either under the Government of India or under the Government of any State after he has ceased to hold his office.

(4) The salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of members of the staff of the Auditor-General shall be fixed by the Auditor- General in consultation with the President.

(5) The salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of the Auditor-General and members of his staff shall be charged upon the revenues of India.

DC.125

Document Name > Paragraph Number

125. The Auditor-General shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Government of India and of the Government of any State as are or may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament.

Explanation.-In this article the expression "law made by Parliament" includes any existing law for the time being in force in the territory of India.

DC.126

Document Name > Paragraph Number

126. The accounts of the Government of India shall be kept in such form as the Auditor-General of India may, with the approval of the President, prescribe and, in so far as the Auditor-General of India may, with the like approval, give any directions with regard to the methods or principles in accordance with which any accounts of the Government of any State ought to be kept, it shall be the duty of the Government of the State to cause accounts to be kept accordingly.

DC.127

Document Name > Paragraph Number

127. The reports of the Auditor-General of India relating to the accounts of the Government of India shall be submitted to the President, who shall cause them to be laid before Parliament.

PART VI

THE STATES IN PART I OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE

CHAPTER I

General

DC.128

Document Name > Paragraph Number

128. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, the expression "State" means a State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule.

CHAPTER II

The Executive

The Governor

DC.129

Document Name > Paragraph Number

129. There shall be a Governor for each State.

DC.130

Document Name > Paragraph Number

130. (1) The executive power of the State shall be vested in the Governor and may be exercised by him in accordance with the Constitution and the law.

(2) Nothing in this article shall-

(a) Be deemed to transfer to the Governor any functions conferred by any existing law on any other authority; or

(b) Prevent Parliament or the Legislature of the State from conferring by law functions on any authority subordinate to the Governor.

DC.131

Document Name > Paragraph Number

131. The Governor of a State shall be elected by direct vote of all persons who have the right to vote at a general election for the Legislative Assembly of the State.

Alternatively

DC.131

Document Name > Paragraph Number

131. The Governor of a State shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal from a panel of four candidates to be elected by the members of the Legislative Assembly of the State, or, where there is a Legislative Council in the State, by all the members of the Legislative Assembly and of the Legislative Council of the State assembled at a joint meeting, in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot.

DC.132

Document Name > Paragraph Number

132. The Governor shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office:

Provided that –

(a) A Governor may, by resignation under his hand addressed to the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of the State or where there are two Houses of the Legislature of the State, to the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman of the Legislative Council of the State, resign his office;

(b) A Governor may, for violation of the Constitution, be removed from office by impeachment in the manner provided in article 137 of this Constitution;

(c) A Governor shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.

DC.133

Document Name > Paragraph Number

133. A person who holds, or who has held, office as Governor shall be eligible for re-election/re-appointment to that office once, but only once.

DC.134

Document Name > Paragraph Number

134. (1) No person shall be eligible for election as Governor unless he is a citizen of India and has completed the age of thirty-five years.

(2) A person shall not be eligible for election as a Governor of a State-

(a) If he is disqualified for being chosen as a member of the Legislative Assembly of the State:

Provided that it shall not be necessary for any such person to be a resident of the State; or

(b) If he holds any office or position of emolument under the Government of India or the Government of any State for the time being specified in the First Schedule, or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this clause a person shall not be deemed to hold any office or position of emolument by reason only that-

Alternatively

DC.134

Document Name > Paragraph Number

134. (1) No person shall be eligible for appointment as Governor unless he is a citizen of India and has completed the age of thirty-five years.

(2) A person shall not be eligible for appointment as Governor of a State if he is disqualified for being chosen as a member of the Legislative Assembly of the State:

Provided that it shall not be necessary for any such person to be a resident of the State.

DC.135

Document Name > Paragraph Number

135. (1) The Governor shall not be a member either of Parliament or of the Legislature of any State for the time being specified in the First Schedule, and if a member of Parliament or of the Legislature of any such State be elected (1 appointed) Governor, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in Parliament or such Legislature, as the case may be, on the date on which he enters upon his office as Governor.

(2) The Governor shall not hold any other office or position of emolument.

(3) The Governor shall have an official residence, and there shall be paid to the Governor such emoluments and allowances as may be determined by the Legislature of the State by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments and allowances as are specified in the Second Schedule.

(4) The emoluments and allowances of the Governor shall not be diminished during his term of office.

DC.136

Document Name > Paragraph Number

136. Every Governor and every person discharging the functions of the Governor shall before entering upon his office make and subscribe in the presence of the members of the Legislature of the State an affirmation or oath in the following form, that is to say:-

"I, A. B., do solemnly affirm (or swear) that I will faithfully execute the office of Governor (or discharge the functions of the Governor) of (name of the State) and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of (name of the State)."

DC.137

Document Name > Paragraph Number

137. (1) When a Governor is to be impeached for violation of the Constitution, the charge shall be preferred by the Legislative Assembly of the State.

(2) No such charge shall be preferred unless-

(a) The proposal to prefer such charge is contained in a resolution which has been moved after a notice in writing signed by not less than thirty members of the Assembly has been given of their intention to move the resolution, and

(b) The resolution has been supported by not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the Assembly

(3) When a charge has been so preferred, the Speaker of the Assembly shall inform the Chairman of the Council of States and thereupon the Council of States shall appoint a committee which may consist of or include persons who are not members of the Council, to investigate the charge and the Governor shall have the right to appear and to be represented at such investigation.

(4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed, supported by not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the Council of States declaring that the charge preferred against the Governor has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the Governor from his office as from the date on which the resolution is communicated to the Speaker of the Assembly.

DC.138

Document Name > Paragraph Number

138. The Legislature of a State may make such provision as it thinks fit (The President may make such provision as he thinks fit) for the discharge of the functions of the Governor of the/a State in any contingency not provided for in this Chapter.

DC.139

Document Name > Paragraph Number

139. (1) An election (An election to constitute a panel) for the purpose of filling a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of a Governor shall be completed before the expiration of the term.

(2) An election (An election to constitute a panel) for the purpose of filling a vacancy in the office of Governor occurring by reason of his death, resignation or removal or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after the occurrence of the vacancy and the person elected (appointed) to fill the vacancy shall be entitled to hold office for the full term of five years as provided in article 132 of this Constitution.

DC.140

Document Name > Paragraph Number

140. (1) All doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a Governor (the election to constitute a panel for the purpose of the appointment of a Governor) shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision shall be final.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature of the State may, by law, regulate any matter relating to or connected with the election of a Governor (the election to constitute a panel for the purpose of the appointment of a Governor).

DC.141

Document Name > Paragraph Number

141. The Governor of a State shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment, or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence, of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter with respect to which the Legislature of the State has power to make laws.

DC.142

Document Name > Paragraph Number

142. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of each State shall extend-

(a) To the matters with respect to which the Legislature of the State has power to make laws, and

(b) To the exercise of such rights, authority and jurisdiction as are exercisable under any agreement entered into with any State or group of States for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule under article 236 or article 237 of this Constitution.

Council of Ministers

DC.143

Document Name > Paragraph Number

143. (1) There shall be a Council of ministers with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his functions, except in so far as he is by or under this Constitution required to exercise his functions or any of them in his discretion.

(2) If any question arises whether any matter is or is not a matter as respects which the Governor is by or under this Constitution required to act in his discretion, the decision of the Governor in his discretion shall be final, and the validity of anything done by the Governor shall not be called in question on the ground that he ought or ought not to have acted in his discretion.

(3) The question whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered by ministers to the Governor shall not be inquired into in any court.

DC.144

Document Name > Paragraph Number

144. (1) The Governor's ministers shall be appointed by him and shall hold office during his pleasure:

Provided that in the States of Bihar, Central Provinces and Berar and Orissa, there shall be a minister in charge of tribal welfare who may in addition be in charge of the welfare of the Scheduled Castes and backward classes or any other work.

(2) Before a minister enters upon his office, the Governor shall administer to him the oaths of office and of secrecy according to the forms set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule.

(3) A minister who, for any period of six consecutive months, is not a member of the Legislature of the State shall at the expiration of that period cease to be a minister.

(4) In choosing his ministers and in his relations with them the Governor shall be generally guided by the Instructions set out in the Fourth Schedule, but the validity of anything done by the Governor shall not be called in question on the ground that it was done otherwise than in accordance with such Instructions.

(5) The salaries and allowances of ministers shall be such as the Legislature of the State may from time to time by law determine and, until the Legislature of the State so determine, shall be as specified in the Second Schedule.

(6) The functions of the Governor under this article with respect to the appointment and dismissal of ministers shall be exercised by him in his discretion.

The Advocate-General for the State

DC.145

Document Name > Paragraph Number

145. (1) The Governor of each State shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a judge of a High Court, to be Advocate-General for the State.

(2) It shall be the duty of the Advocate-General to give advice to the Government of the State upon such legal matters and to perform such other duties of a legal character as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the Governor, and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other law for the time being in force. (3) The Advocate-General shall retire from office upon the resignation of the Chief Minister in the State, but he may continue in office until his successor is appointed or he is reappointed.

(4) The Advocate-General shall receive such remuneration as the Governor may determine.

Conduct of Government Business

DC.146

Document Name > Paragraph Number

146. (1) All executive action of the Government of a State shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the Governor.

(2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the Governor shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the Governor, and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the Governor.

DC.147

Document Name > Paragraph Number

147. It shall be the duty of the Chief Minister of each State-

(a) To communicate to the Governor of the State all decisions of the Council of ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation;

(b) To furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation as the Governor may call for; and

(c) If the Governor so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Council of ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a minister but which has not been considered by the Council.

CHAPTER III

The State Legislature

General

DC.148

Document Name > Paragraph Number

148. (1) For every State there shall be a Legislature which shall consist of the Governor; and

(a) In the States of - , two Houses,

(b) In other States, one House.

(2) Where there are two Houses of the Legislature of a State, one shall be known as the Legislative Council and the other as the Legislative Assembly and where there is only one House, it shall be known as the Legislative Assembly.

DC.149

Document Name > Paragraph Number

149. (1) Subject to the provisions of articles 294 and 295 of this Constitution the Legislative Assembly of each State shall be composed of members chosen by direct election.

(2) The election shall be on the basis of adult suffrage; that is to say, every citizen who is not less than twenty-one years of age and is not otherwise disqualified under this Constitution or any law made by the Legislature of the State on the ground of non-residence, unsoundness of mind, crime or corrupt or illegal practice shall be entitled to be registered as a voter at such elections.

(3) The representation of each territorial constituency in the Legislative Assembly of a State shall be on the basis of the population of that constituency as ascertained at the last preceding census and shall, save in the case of the autonomous districts of Assam, be on a scale of not more than one representative for every lakh of the population:

Provided that the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly of a State shall in no case be more than three hundred or less than sixty.

(4) Upon the completion of each census, the representation of the several territorial constituencies in the Legislative Assembly of each State shall, subject to the provisions of article 289 of this Constitution, be readjusted by such authority, in such manner and with effect from such date as the Legislature of the State may by law determine:

Provided that such readjustment shall not affect representation to the Legislative Assembly until the dissolution of the then existing Assembly.

DC.150

Document Name > Paragraph Number

150. (1) The total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council shall not exceed twenty-five per cent of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly of that State.

(2) Of the total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State-

(a) One-half shall be chosen from panels of candidates constituted under clause (3) of this article;

(b) One-third shall be elected by the members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote; and

(e) The remainder shall be nominated by the Governor.

(3) Before the first general election and, thereafter, before each triennial election under clause (2) of article 151 of this Constitution to the Legislative Council of a State, five panels of candidates shall be formed, of which one shall contain the names of representatives of universities in the State and the remaining four shall respectively contain the names of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of the following subjects, namely:-

(a) Literature, art and science;

(b) Agriculture, fisheries and allied subjects;

(c) Engineering and architecture;

(d) Public administration and social services.

(4) Each panel of candidates constituted under clause (3) of this article shall contain at least twice the number to be elected from such panel.

(5) For bye-elections clauses (3) and (4) of this article shall have effect subject to such adaptations and modifications as may be prescribed by the Legislature of the State by law.

DC.151

Document Name > Paragraph Number

151. (1) Every Legislative Assembly of every State, unless sooner dissolved, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and the expiration of the said period of five years shall operate as a dissolution of the Assembly.

(2) The Legislative Council of a State shall not be subject to dissolution, but as nearly as may be one-third of the members thereof shall retire as soon as may be on the expiration of every third year in accordance with the provisions made in that behalf by the Legislature of the State by law.

DC.152

Document Name > Paragraph Number

152. A person shall not be qualified to be chosen to fill a seat in the Legislature of a State unless he is, in the case of a seat in a Legislative Assembly, not less than twenty-five years of age, and in the case of a seat in a Legislative Council, not less than thirty-five years of age.

DC.153

Document Name > Paragraph Number

153. (1) The House or Houses of the Legislature of the State shall be summoned to meet twice at least in every year, and six months shall not intervene between their last sitting in one session and the date appointed for their first sitting in the next session.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this article, the Governor may from time to time-

(a) Summon the Houses or either House to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit;

(b) Prorogue the House or Houses;

(c) Dissolve the Legislative Assembly.

(3) The functions of the Governor under subclauses (a) and (c) of clause (2) of this article shall be exercised by him in his discretion.

DC.154

Document Name > Paragraph Number

154. (1) The Governor may address the Legislative Assembly or in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, either House of the Legislature of the State, or both Houses assembled together, and may for that purpose require the attendance of members.

(2) The Governor may send messages to the House or Houses of the Legislature of the State whether with respect to a Bill then pending in the Legislature or otherwise, and a House to which any message is so sent shall with all convenient despatch consider any matter required by the message to be taken into consideration.

DC.155

Document Name > Paragraph Number

155. (1) At the commencement of every session, the Governor shall address the Legislative Assembly or in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, both Houses assembled together and inform the Legislature of the cause of its summons.

(2) Provision shall be made by the rules regulating the procedure of either House for the allotment of time for a discussion of the matters referred to in such address and for the precedence of such discussion over other business of the House.

DC.156

Document Name > Paragraph Number

156. Every minister and the Advocate-General for a State shall have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, the Legislative Assembly of the State or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, both Houses and any joint sitting of the Houses, and to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, any committee of the Legislature of which he may be named a member, but shall not, by virtue of this article, be entitled to vote.

Officers of the State Legislature

DC.157

Document Name > Paragraph Number

157. Every Legislative Assembly of a State shall, as soon as may be, choose two members of the Assembly to be respectively Speaker and Deputy Speaker thereof, and, so often as the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker becomes vacant, the Assembly shall choose another member to be Speaker or Deputy Speaker, as the case may be.

DC.158

Document Name > Paragraph Number

158. A member holding office as Speaker or Deputy Speaker of an Assembly-

(a) Shall vacate his office if he ceases to be a member of the Assembly;

(b) May at any time by writing under his hand addressed, if such member is the Speaker, to the Deputy Speaker, and if such member is the Deputy Speaker, to the Speaker, resign his office; and

(c) May be removed from his office for incapacity or want of confidence by a resolution of the Assembly passed by a majority of all the then members of the Assembly:

Provided that no resolution for the purpose of clause (c) of this article shall be moved unless at least fourteen days' notice has been given of the intention to move the resolution:

Provided further that, whenever the Assembly is dissolved, the Speaker shall not vacate his office until immediately before the first meeting of the Assembly after the dissolution.

DC.159

Document Name > Paragraph Number

159. (1) While the office of Speaker is vacant the duties of the office shall be performed by the Deputy Speaker, or if the office of Deputy Speaker is also vacant, by such member of the Assembly as the Governor may appoint for the purpose.

(2) During the absence of the Speaker from any sitting of the Assembly, the Deputy Speaker or, if he is also absent such person as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the Assembly, or, if no such person is present, such other person as may be determined by the Assembly, shall act as Speaker.

DC.160

Document Name > Paragraph Number

160. The Legislative Council of every State having such Council, shall, as soon as may be, choose two members of the Council to be respectively Chairman and Deputy Chairman thereof and, so often as the office of Chairman or Deputy Chairman becomes vacant, the Council shall choose another member to be Chairman or Deputy Chairman, as the case may be.

DC.161

Document Name > Paragraph Number

161. A member holding office as Chairman or Deputy Chairman of a

Legislative Council-

(a) Shall vacate his office if he ceases to be a member of the Council;

(b) May at any time by writing under his hand addressed, if such member is the Chairman, to the Deputy Chairman, and if such member is the Deputy Chairman, to the Chairman, resign his office; and

(c) May be removed from his office for incapacity or want of confidence by a resolution of the Council passed by a majority of all the then members of the Council:

Provided that no resolution for the purpose of clause (c) of this article shall be moved unless at least fourteen days' notice has been given of the intention to move the resolution.

DC.162

Document Name > Paragraph Number

162. (1) While the office of Chairman is vacant, the duties of the office shall be performed by the Deputy Chairman or if the office of Deputy Chairman is also vacant by such member of the Council as the Governor may appoint for the purpose.

(2) During the absence of the Chairman from any sitting of the Council, the Deputy Chairman or, if he is also absent such person as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the Council, or, if no such person is present, such other person as may be determined by the Council, shall act as Chairman.

DC.163

Document Name > Paragraph Number

163. There shall be paid to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and to the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council such salaries and allowances as may be respectively fixed by the Legislature of the State by law, and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such salaries and allowances as are specified in the Second Schedule.

Conduct of Business

DC.164

Document Name > Paragraph Number

164. (1) Save as provided in this Constitution, all questions in a House or a joint sitting of two Houses of the Legislature of a State shall be determined by a majority of votes of the members present and voting, other than the Speaker or Chairman or person acting as such.

The Speaker or Chairman or person acting as such shall not vote in the first instance but shall have and exercise a casting vote in the case of an equality of votes.

(2) A House of the Legislature of a State shall have power to act notwithstanding any vacancy in the membership thereof, and any proceedings in the Legislature of a State shall be valid notwithstanding that it is discovered subsequently that some person who was not entitled so to do, sat or voted or otherwise took part in the proceedings.

(3) If at any time during a meeting of the Legislative Assembly or the Legislative Council of a State there is no quorum, it shall be the duty of the Speaker or Chairman or person acting as such either to adjourn the House or to suspend the meeting until there is a quorum.

The quorum shall be ten members or one-sixth of the total number of members of the House, whichever is greater.

Disqualifications of Members

DC.165

Document Name > Paragraph Number

165. Every member of the Legislative Assembly or the Legislative Council of a State shall, before taking his seat, make and subscribe before the Governor or some person appointed in this behalf by him, a declaration according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule.

DC.166

Document Name > Paragraph Number

166. (1) No person shall be a member of both Houses of the Legislature of a State and provision shall be made by the Legislature of the State by law for the vacation by a person who is chosen a member of both Houses of his seat in one House or the other.

(2) No person shall be a member both of Parliament and of the Legislature of a State and if a person is chosen a member both of Parliament and of the Legislature of a State, then, at the expiration of such period as may be specified in rules made by the Governor of the State, that person's seat in the Legislature of the State shall become vacant, unless he has previously resigned his seat in Parliament.

(3) If a member of a House of the Legislature of a State-

(a) Becomes subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in clause

(i) of the next succeeding article; or

(b) Resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to the Speaker or the Chairman, as the case may be, his seat shall thereupon become vacant.

(4) If for a period of sixty days a member of a House of the Legislature of a State is without permission of the House absent from all meetings thereof, the House may declare his seat vacant:

Provided that in computing the said period of sixty days no account shall be taken of any period during which the House is prorogued or is adjourned for more than four consecutive days.

DC.167

Document Name > Paragraph Number

167. (1) A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of a State.

(a) If he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State for the time being specified in the First Schedule other than an office declared by the Legislature of the State by law not to disqualify its holder;

(b) If he is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court;

(c) If he is an undischarged insolvent; (d) If he is under any acknowledgment of allegiance or adherence to a foreign power, or is a subject or a citizen or entitled to the rights or privileges of a subject or a citizen of a foreign power; (e) If he is so disqualified by or under any law made by the Legislature of the State.

(2) For the purposes of this article, a person shall not be deemed to hold an office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State for the time being specified in the First Schedule by reason only that-

(a) He is a minister either for India or for any State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule; or

(b) He is a minister for any State for the time being specified in Part III of the first Schedule is responsible to the Legislature of the State, or

where there are two Houses of the Legislature of the State, to the Lower House of such Legislature and if not less than three-fourths of the members of such Legislature or House, as the case may be, are elected.

DC.168

Document Name > Paragraph Number

168. If a person sits or votes as a member of the Legislative Assembly or the Legislative Council of a State before he has complied with the requirements of article 165 of this Constitution, or when he knows that he is not qualified or that he is disqualified for membership thereof or that he is prohibited from so doing by the provisions of any law made by the Legislature of the State, he shall be liable in respect of each day on which he so sits or votes to a penalty of five hundred rupees to be recovered as a debt due to the State.

Privileges and Immunities of Members

DC.169

Document Name > Paragraph Number

169. (1) Subject to the rules and standing orders regulating the procedure of the Legislature, there shall be freedom of speech in the Legislature of every State.

(2) No member of the Legislature of a State shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in the Legislature or any committee thereof, and no person shall be so liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of a House of such a Legislature of any report, paper, votes or proceedings.

(3) In other respects the privileges and immunities of members of a House of the Legislature of a State shall be such as may from time to time be defined by the Legislature by law, and until so defined, shall be such as are enjoyed by the members of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom at the commencement of this Constitution.

(4) The provisions of clauses (1), (2) and (3) of this article shall apply in relation to persons who by virtue of this Constitution have the right to speak in, and otherwise take part in the proceedings of, a House of the Legislature of a State as they apply in relation to members of that Legislature.

DC.170

Document Name > Paragraph Number

170. Members of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council of a State shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as may from time to time be determined by the Legislature of the State by law, and, until provision in that respect is so made, allowances at such rates and upon such conditions as were immediately before the date of commencement of this Constitution applicable in the case of members of the Provincial Legislative Assembly for that State.

Legislative Procedure

DC.171

Document Name > Paragraph Number

171. (1) Subject to the provisions of articles 173 and 182 of this Constitution with respect to Money Bills and other financial Bills, a Bill may originate in either House of the Legislature of a State which has a Legislative Council.

(2) Subject to the provisions of articles 172 and 173 of this Constitution, a Bill shall not be deemed to have been passed by the Houses. of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council unless it has been agreed to by both Houses either without amendment or with such amendments only as are agreed to by both Houses.

(3) A Bill pending in the Legislature of a State shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation of the House or Houses thereof.

(4) A Bill pending in the Legislative Council of a State which has not been passed by the Legislative Assembly shall not lapse on a dissolution of the Assembly.

(5) A Bill which is pending in the Legislative Assembly of a State, or which having been passed by the Legislative Assembly is pending in the Legislative Council, shall lapse on a dissolution of the Assembly.

DC.172

Document Name > Paragraph Number

172. (1) If after a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State having a Legislative Council and transmitted to the Legislative Council, more than six months elapse from the date of the reception of the Bill by the Council without the Bill being passed by both Houses, the Governor may, unless the Bill has lapsed by reason of a dissolution of the Legislative Assembly, summon the Houses to meet in a joint sitting for the purposes of deliberating and voting on the Bill:

Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to a Money Bill.

(2) In reckoning any such period of six months as is referred to in clause (1) of this article, no account shall be taken of any time during which both Houses are prorogued or adjourned for more than four days.

(3) If at the joint sitting of the two Houses summoned in accordance with the provisions of this article the Bill, with such amendments, if any, as are agreed to in joint sitting, is passed by a majority of the total number of members of both Houses present and voting, it shall be deemed for the purposes of this Constitution to have been passed by both Houses:

Provided that at a joint sitting-

(a) If the Bill has not been passed by the Legislative Council with amendments and returned to the Legislative Assembly, no amendment shall be proposed to the Bill other than such amendments (if any) as are made necessary by the delay in the passage of the Bill;

(b) If the Bill has been so passed and returned by the Legislative Council, only such amendments as aforesaid shall be proposed to the Bill and such other amendments as are relevant to the matters with respect to which the Houses have not agreed; and the decision of the person presiding as to the amendments which are admissible under this clause shall be final.

DC.173

Document Name > Paragraph Number

173. (1) A Money Bill shall not be introduced in a Legislative Council.

(2) After a Money Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State having a Legislative Council, it shall be transmitted to the Legislative Council for its recommendations, and the Legislative Council shall within a period of thirty days from the date of its receipt of the Bill return the Bill to the Legislative Assembly with its recommendations, and the Legislative Assembly may thereupon either accept or reject all or any of the recommendations of the Legislative Council.

(3) If the Legislative Assembly accepts any of the recommendations of the Legislative Council, the Money Bill shall be deemed to have been passed by both Houses with the amendments recommended by the Legislative Council and accepted by the Legislative Assembly.

(4) If the Legislative. Assembly does not accept any of the recommendations of the Legislative Council, the Money Bill shall be deemed to have been passed by the Legislative Assembly without any of the amendments recommended by the Legislative Council.

(5) If a Money Bill passed by the Legislative Assembly and transmitted to the Legislative Council for its recommendations is not returned to the Legislative Assembly within the said period of thirty days, it shall be deemed to have been passed by both Houses at the expiration of the said period in the form in which it was passed by the Legislative Assembly.

DC.174

Document Name > Paragraph Number

174. (1) For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters, namely:-

(a) The imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax;

(b) The regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the State, or the amendment of the law with respect to any financial obligations undertaken or to be undertaken by the State;

(e) Supply;

(d) The appropriation of the revenues of the State;

(e) The declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the revenues of the State, or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure;

(f) The receipt of money on account of the revenues of the State or the custody or issue of such money or the audit of the accounts of the State; or

(g) Any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in items (a) to (f) of this clause.

(2) A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes.

(3) If any question arises whether a Bill introduced in the Legislature of a State which has a Legislative Council is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of such State thereon shall be final.

(4) There shall be endorsed on every Money Bill when it is transmitted to the Legislative Council under the last preceding article, and when it is presented to the Governor for assent under the next succeeding article, the certificate of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly signed by him that it is a Money Bill.

DC.175

Document Name > Paragraph Number

175. A Bill which has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, has been passed by both Houses of the Legislature of the State, shall be presented to the Governor and the Governor shall declare either that he assents to the Bill or that he withholds assent therefrom or that he reserves the Bill for the consideration of the President:

Provided that where there is only one House of the Legislature and the Bill has been passed by that House, the Governor may, in his discretion, return the Bill together with a message requesting that the House will reconsider the Bill or any specified provisions thereof and, in particular, will reconsider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may recommend in his message and, when a.Bill is so returned, the House shall reconsider it accordingly and if the Bill is passed again by the House with or without amendment and presented to the Governor for assent, the Governor shall not withhold assent therefrom.

DC.176

Document Name > Paragraph Number

176. When a Bill is reserved by a Governor for the consideration of the President, the President shall declare either that he assents to the Bill or that he withholds assent therefrom:

Provided that where the Bill is not a Money Bill the President may direct the Governor to return the Bill to the House or, as the case may be, the Houses of the Legislature of the State together with such a message as is mentioned in the proviso to the last preceding article and, when a Bill is so returned, the House or Houses shall reconsider it accordingly within a period of six months from the date of receipt of such message and, if it is again passed by them with or without amendment, it shall be presented again to the President for his consideration.

Procedure in Financial Matters

DC.177

Document Name > Paragraph Number

177. (1) The Governor shall in respect of every financial year cause to be laid before the House or Houses of the Legislature of the State a statement of the estimated receipts and expenditure of the State for that year, in this Part of this Constitution referred to as the "annual financial statement ".

(2) The estimates of expenditure embodied in the annual financial statement shall show separately-

(a) The sums required to meet expenditure described by this Constitution as expenditure charged upon the revenues of the State; and

(b) The sums required to meet other expenditure proposed to be made from the revenues of the State; and shall distinguish expenditure on revenue account from other expenditure.

(3) The following expenditure shall be expenditure charged on the revenues of each State-

(a) The emoluments and allowances of the Governor and other expenditure relating to his office;

(b) The emoluments and allowances of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, and in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, also of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council;

(c) Debt charges for which the State is liable including interest, sinking fund charges and redemption charges, and other expenditure relating to the raising of loans and the service and redemption of debt;

(d) Expenditure in respect of the salaries and allowances of judges of any High Court;

(e) Any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or award of any court or arbitral tribunal;

(f) Any other expenditure declared by this Constitution or by the Legislature of the State by law to be so charged.

DC.178

Document Name > Paragraph Number

178. (1) So much of the estimates as relates to expenditure charged upon the revenues of a State shall not be submitted to the vote of the Legislative Assembly, but nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the discussion in the Legislature of those estimates.

(2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the form of demands for grants to the Legislative Assembly, and the Legislative Assembly shall have power to assent, or to refuse to assent, to any demand, or to assent to any demand subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein.

(3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the Governor.

DC.179

Document Name > Paragraph Number

179. (1) The Governor shall authenticate by his signature a schedule specifying-

(a) The grants made by the Assembly under the last preceding article;

(b) The several sums required to meet the expenditure charged on the revenues of the State, but not exceeding in any case, the sum shown in the statement previously laid before the House or Houses.

(2) The schedule so authenticated shall be laid before the Assembly but shall not be open to discussion or vote in the Legislature.

(3) Subject to the provisions of the next two succeeding articles, no expenditure from the revenues of the State shall be deemed to be duly authorised unless it is specified in the schedule so authenticated.

DC.180

Document Name > Paragraph Number

180. If in respect of any financial year further expenditure from the revenues of the State becomes necessary over and above the expenditure therefore authorised for that year, the Governor shall cause to be laid before the House or Houses a supplementary statement showing the estimated amount of that expenditure, and the provisions of the preceding articles shall have effect in relation to that statement and that expenditure as they have effect in relation to the annual financial statement and the expenditure mentioned therein.

DC.181

Document Name > Paragraph Number

181. If in any financial year expenditure from the revenues of the State has been incurred on any service for which the vote of the Legislative Assembly is necessary in excess of the amount granted for that service and for that year, a demand for the excess shall be presented to the Assembly and the provisions of articles 178 and 179 of this Constitution shall have effect in relation to such demand as they have effect in relation to a demand for a grant.

DC.182

Document Name > Paragraph Number

182. (1) A Bill or amendment making provision for any of the matters specified in items (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 174 of this Constitution shall not be introduced or moved except on the recommendation of the Governor, and a Bill making such provision shall not be introduced in a Legislative Council:

Provided that no recommendation shall be required under this clause for the moving of an amendment making provision for the reduction or abolition of any tax.

(2) A Bill or amendment shall not be deemed to make provision for any of the matters aforesaid by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes.

(3) A Bill which, if enacted and brought into operation, would involve expenditure from the revenues of a State shall not be passed by a House of the Legislature of the State unless the Governor has recommended to that House the consideration of the Bill.

DC.183

Document Name > Paragraph Number

183. (1) A House of the Legislature of a State may make rules for regulating, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, its procedure and the conduct of its business.

(2) Until rules are made under clause (1) of this article, the rules of procedure and standing orders in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution with respect to the Provincial Legislature for' the State shall have effect in relation to the Legislature of that State subject to such modifications and adaptations as may be made therein by the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, or the Chairman of the Legislative Council, as the case may-be.

(3) In a State having a Legislative Council the Governor, after consultation with the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman of the Legislative Council, may make rules as to the procedure with respect to joint sittings of, and communications between, the two Houses.

(4) At a joint sitting of the two Houses the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, or in his absence such person as may be determined by rules of procedure made under clause (3) of this article, shall preside.

DC.184

Document Name > Paragraph Number

184. (1) In the Legislature of a State, business shall be transacted in the language or languages generally used in that State or in Hindi or in English.

(2) The Speaker of the Legislative Assembly or the Chairman of the Legislative Council may, whenever he thinks fit, make arrangements for making available in the Assembly or the Council, as the case may be, a summary in any language generally used in the State or in English of the speech delivered by a member in any other language, and such summary shall be included in the record of the proceedings of the House in which the speech has been delivered.

DC.185

Document Name > Paragraph Number

185. (1) No discussion shall take place in the Legislature of a State with respect to the conduct of any judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge of his duties.

(2) In this article, the reference to a High Court shall be construed as including a reference to any court in a State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule which is a High Court for any of the purposes of Chapter IV of Part V of this Constitution.

DC.186

Document Name > Paragraph Number

186. (1) The validity of any proceedings in the Legislature of a State shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure.

(2) No officer or other member of the Legislature of a State in whom powers are vested by or under this Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining order, in the Legislature shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of those powers.

CHAPTER IV

Legislative Power of the Governor

DC.187

Document Name > Paragraph Number

187. (1) If at any time, except when the Legislative Assembly of a State is in session, or where there is a Legislative Council in a State, except when both Houses of the Legislature are in session, the Governor is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require:

Provided that the Governor shall not, without instructions from the President, promulgate any such Ordinance if an Act of the Legislature of the State containing the same provisions would under the provisions of this Constitution have been invalid unless, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, it had received the assent of the President.

(2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, but every such Ordinance-

(a) Shall be laid before the Legislative Assembly of the State, or where there is a Legislative Council in the State, before both the Houses, and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature, or if before the expiration of that period a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislative Assembly and agreed to by the Legislative Council, if any, upon the passing of the resolution or, as the case may be, on the resolution being agreed to by the Council; and

(b) May be withdrawn at any time by the Governor.

Explanation.-Where the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council are summoned to re-assemble on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be reckoned from the later of those dates for the purposes of this clause.

(3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, it shall be void:

Provided that, for the purposes of the provisions of this Constitution relating to the effect of an Act of the Legislature of a State which is repugnant to an Act of Parliament or an existing law with respect to a matter enumerated in the Concurrent List, an Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the State which has been reserved for the consideration of the President and assented to by him.

CHAPTER V

Provisions in Cases of Grave Emergencies

DC.188

Document Name > Paragraph Number

188. (1) If at any time the Governor of a State is satisfied that a grave emergency has arisen which threatens the peace and tranquillity of the State and that it is not possible to carry on the Government of the State in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, he may, by proclamation, declare that his functions shall, to such extent as may be specified in the proclamation, be exercised by him in his discretion, and any such proclamation may contain such incidental and consequential provisions as may appear to him necessary or desirable for giving effect to the objects of the proclamation including provisions for suspending in whole or in part the operation of any provisions of this Constitution relating to any body or authority in the State:

Provided that nothing in this clause shall authorise the Governor to suspend, either in whole or in part, the operation of any provision of this Constitution relating to High Courts.

(2) The proclamation shall be forthwith communicated by the Governor to the President who may, thereupon either revoke the proclamation or take such action as he considers appropriate in exercise of the emergency powers vested in him under article 278 of this Constitution.

(3) A proclamation under this article shall cease to operate at the expiration of two weeks unless revoked earlier by the Governor or by the President by public notification.

(4) The functions of the Governor under this article shall be exercised by him in his discretion.  

CHAPTER VI

Scheduled and Tribal Areas

DC.189

Document Name > Paragraph Number

189. In this Constitution-

(a) The expression "scheduled areas" means the areas specified in Parts I to VII of the table appended to paragraph 18 of the Fifth Schedule in relation to the States to which those Parts respectively relate; (b) The expression "tribal areas" means the areas specified in Parts I and

II of the table appended to paragraph 19 of the Sixth Schedule.

DC.190

Document Name > Paragraph Number

190. (1) The provisions of the Fifth Schedule shall apply to the administration and control of the scheduled areas and scheduled tribes in any State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule.

(2) The provisions of the Sixth Schedule shall apply to the administration of the tribal areas in the State of Assam.

CHAPTER VII

The High Courts in the States

DC.191

Document Name > Paragraph Number

191. (1) For the purposes of this Constitution the following courts shall, in relation to the territory of India except the States for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule, be deemed to be High Courts, that is to say,-

(a) The High Courts in Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Allahabad, Patna and Nagpur, the High Court of East Punjab and the Chief Court in Oudh;

(b) Any other court in any of these States constituted or re-constituted under this Chapter as a High Court; and

(c) Any other court in any of these States which may be declared by the appropriate Legislature by law to be a High Court for the purposes of this Constitution:

Provided that if provision is made by the appropriate Legislature for the establishment of a High Court to replace any court or courts mentioned in this clause, then, as from the establishment of the new court, this article shall have effect as if the new court were mentioned therein in lieu of the court or courts so replaced.

(2) Save as otherwise provided, the provisions of this Chapter shall apply to every High Court referred to in clause (1) of this article.

DC.192

Document Name > Paragraph Number

192. Every High Court shall be a court of record and shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other judges as the President may from time to time deem it necessary to appoint:

Provided that the judges so appointed together with any additional judges appointed by the President in accordance with the following provisions of this Chapter shall at no time exceed in number such maximum as the President may by order fix in relation to that Court.

DC.193

Document Name > Paragraph Number

193. (1) Every judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by a warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and in the case of appointment of a judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court of the State, and shall hold office until he attains the age of sixty years or such higher age not exceeding sixty-five years as may be fixed in this behalf by law of the Legislature of the State:

Provided that-

(a) A judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Governor, resign his office;

(b) A judge may be removed from his office by the President in the manner provided in clause (4) of article 103 of this Constitution for the removal of a judge of the Supreme Court;

(c) The office of the judge shall be vacated by his being appointed by the President to be a judge of the Supreme Court or of any other High Court.

(2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a judge of a High Court unless he is a citizen of India and-

(a) Has held for at least ten years a judicial office in any State in or for which there is a High Court; or

(b) Has been for at least ten years an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such courts in succession.

Explanation I.-For the purposes of this clause-

(a) In computing the period during which a person has been an advocate of a High Court, there shall be included any period during which a person held judicial office after he became an advocate;

(b) In computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in a State for the time being specified in Part I or Part II of the First Schedule or been an advocate of a High Court, there shall be included any period before the commencement of this Constitution during which he held judicial office in any area which was comprised before the fifteenth day of August, 1947, within British India as defined by the Government of India Act, 1935, or has been an advocate of any High Court in any such area, as the case may be.

Explanation II.-In sub-clauses .(a) and (b) of this clause, the reference to a High Court shall be construed as including a reference to a court in a State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule which is a High Court for the purposes of articles 103 and 106 of this Constitution.

DC.194

Document Name > Paragraph Number

194. The provisions of clauses (4) and (5) of article 103 of this Constitution shall apply in relation to a High Court as they apply in relation to the Supreme Court with the substitution of references to the High Court for references to the Supreme Court.

DC.195

Document Name > Paragraph Number

195. Every person appointed to be a judge of a High Court in a State shall, before he enters upon his office, make and subscribe before the Governor of the State or some person appointed in that behalf by him a declaration according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule.

DC.196

Document Name > Paragraph Number

196. No person who has held office-

(a) As a judge of a High Court, or

(b) As an additional judge or temporary judge of a High Court on having been recruited from the Bar, shall plead or act in any Court or before any authority within the territory of India.

DC.197

Document Name > Paragraph Number

197. The judges of each High Court shall be entitled to such salaries and allowances, and to such rights in respect of leave and pensions, as may from time to time be fixed by or under law made by the Legislature of the State in which the Court has its principal seat, and until they are so fixed, shall be entitled to such salaries, allowances and rights in respect of leave of absence or pension as are specified in the Second Schedule:

Provided that the salary of the Chief Justice of a High Court shall not be less than four thousand rupees per month and the salary of any other judge of a High Court shall not be less than three thousand and five hundred rupees per month:

Provided further that neither the salary of a judge nor his rights in respect of leave of absence or pension shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.

DC.198

Document Name > Paragraph Number

198. (1) When the office of Chief Justice of a High Court is vacant or when any such Chief Justice is, by reason of absence or otherwise, unable to perform the duties of his office, the duties of the office shall be performed by such one of the other judges of the court as the President may appoint for the purpose.

(2) (a) When the office of any other judge of a High Court is vacant or when any such judge is appointed to act temporarily as a Chief Justice, or is unable to perform the duties of his office by reason of absence or otherwise, the President may appoint a person duly qualified for appointment as a judge to act as a judge of that court.

(b) The person appointed shall, while so acting, be deemed to be a judge of the court.

(c) Nothing contained in this clause shall prevent the President from revoking any appointment made under this clause.

DC.199

Document Name > Paragraph Number

199. If by reason of any temporary increase in the business of any High Court or by reason of arrears of work in any such court, it appears to the President that the number of the judges of the court should be for the time being increased, the President may, subject to the foregoing provisions of this Chapter with respect to the maximum number of judges, appoint persons duly qualified for appointment as judges to be additional judges of the court for such period not exceeding two years as he may specify.

DC.200

Document Name > Paragraph Number

200. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter, the Chief Justice of a High Court may at any time, subject to the provisions of this article, request any person who has held the office of a judge of that court to sit and act as a judge of the court, and every such person so requested shall, while so sitting and acting, have all the jurisdiction, powers and privileges of, but shall not otherwise be deemed to be, a judge of that court:

Provided that nothing in this article shall be deemed to require any such person as aforesaid to sit and act as a judge of that court unless he consents so to do.

DC.201

Document Name > Paragraph Number

201. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to any provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of the powers conferred on that Legislature by this Constitution, the jurisdiction of, and the law administered in, any existing High Court, and the respective powers of the judges thereof in relation to the administration of justice in the court, including any power to make rules of court and to regulate the sittings of the court and of members thereof sitting alone or in division courts, shall be the same as immediately before the commencement of this Constitution:

Provided that any restriction to which the exercise of original jurisdiction of any of the High Courts with respect to any matter concerning the revenue or concerning any act ordered or done in the collection thereof was subject immediately before the commencement of this Constitution shall no longer apply to the exercise of such jurisdiction.

DC.202

Document Name > Paragraph Number

202. (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in article 25 of this Constitution, every High Court shall have power, throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction, to issue directions or orders in the nature of the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part III of this Constitution and for any other purpose.

(2) The power conferred on a High Court by clause (1) of this article shall not be in derogation of the power conferred on the Supreme Court by clause (2) of article 25 of this Constitution.

DC.203

Document Name > Paragraph Number

203. (1) Every High Court shall have superintendence over all courts throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction.

(2) The High Court may-

(a) Call for returns from such courts;

(b) Direct the transfer of any suit or appeal from any such court to any other court of equal or superior jurisdiction, or withdraw such suit or appeal from any such court to itself;

(c) Make and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and proceedings of such courts; and

(d) Prescribe forms in which books, entries and accounts shall be kept by the officers of any such courts.

(3) The High Court may also settle tables of fees to be allowed to the sheriff and all clerks and officers of such courts and to attorneys, advocates and pleaders practising therein:

Provided that any rules made, forms prescribed or tables settled under clause (2) or clause (3) of this article shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of any law for the time being in force, and shall require the previous approval of the Governor.

DC.204

Document Name > Paragraph Number

204. If the High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution, it shall withdraw the case to itself and dispose of the same. Explanation.-In this article, "High Court" includes a court of final jurisdiction in a State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule with regard to the case so pending.

DC.205

Document Name > Paragraph Number

205. (1) The salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of the officers and servants of a High Court shall be fixed by the Chief Justice of the court in consultation with the Governor of the State in which the High Court has its principal seat.

(2) The administrative expenses of a High Court, including all salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of officers and servants of the court, and the salaries and allowances of the judges of the court, shall be charged upon the revenues of the State, and any fees or other moneys taken by the court shall form part of those revenues.

DC.206

Document Name > Paragraph Number

206. (1) The Legislature of a State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule may, by law, constitute a High Court for the State or any part thereof or reconstitute in like manner any existing High Court for that State or for any part thereof, or where there are two High Courts in that State, amalgamate those courts.

(2) Where any court is reconstituted, or two courts are amalgamated, as aforesaid, the law made by the Legislature of the State shall provide for-

(a) The continuance in their respective offices of all the existing judges of the court or courts and of such of the existing officers and servants of the court or courts as may be deemed necessary; and

(b) The carrying on before the reconstituted court or the new court of all pending matters, and may contain such other provision as may appear to be necessary be reason of the reconstitution or amalgamation.

DC.207

Document Name > Paragraph Number

207. Parliament may by law-

(a) Extend the jurisdiction of a High Court to, or

(b) Exclude the jurisdiction of a High Court from, any State other than, or any area not within, the State in which the High Court has its principal seat:

Provided that no Bill for any such purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament unless-

(i) Where the jurisdiction is to be extended to or excluded from a State for the time being specified in Part I or Division A of Part III of the First Schedule or any area within such State, the consent of such other State has been obtained; and

(ii) Where the jurisdiction is to be extended, the consent of the State in which the High Court has its principal seat has also been obtained.

DC.208

Document Name > Paragraph Number

208. Where a High Court exercises jurisdiction in relation to any area outside the State in which it has its principal seat, nothing in this Constitution shall be construed-

(a) As empowering the Legislature of the State in which the court has its principal seat to increase, restrict or abolish that jurisdiction; (b) As empowering the Legislature of a State for the time being specified in Part I or Part III of the First Schedule in which any such area is situate, to abolish that jurisdiction; or

(c) As preventing the Legislature having power to make laws in that behalf for any such area, from passing, subject to the provisions of clause (b) of this article, such laws with respect to the jurisdiction of the court in relation to that area as it would be competent to pass if the principal seat of the court were in that area.

DC.209

Document Name > Paragraph Number

209. Where a High Court exercises jurisdiction in relation to more than one State or in relation to a State and an area not forming part of the State-

(a) References in this Chapter to the Governor in relation to the judges of a High Court shall be construed as references to the Governor of the State in which the court has its principal seat;

(b) The reference to the approval by the Governor of rules, forms and tables for subordinate courts shall be construed as a reference to the approval thereof by the Governor or the Ruler of the State in which the subordinate court is situate, or if it is situate in an area not forming part of any State for the time being specified in Part I or Part III of the First Schedule, by the

President; and

(c) References to the revenues of the State shall be construed as references to the revenues of the State in which the court has its principal seat.

CHAPTER IX

Auditors-in-Chief for the States

DC.210

Document Name > Paragraph Number

210. (1) The Legislature of a State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule may by law provide for the appointment of an Auditor-in-Chief for the State and when such provision has been made an Auditor-in-Chief for that State may be appointed by the Governor in his discretion and the Auditor-in-Chief so appointed shall only be removed from office in like manner and on the like grounds as a judge of the High Court of the State.

(2) An Act passed under clause (1) of this article by the Legislature of a State shall provide that no appointment of an Auditor-in-Chief for the State shall be made until the expiration of at least three years from the date of the publication after assent of the Act.

(3) Every such Act shall prescribe the conditions of service of the Auditor-in-Chief and the duties which shall be performed and the powers which shall be exercised by the Auditor-in-Chief in relation to the accounts of the State and shall declare the salary, allowances and pension- payable to or in respect of the Auditor-in-Chief to be charged on the revenues of the State.

(4) The Auditor-in-Chief of the State shall be eligible for appointment as Auditor-General of India or as Auditor-in-Chief for any other State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule but not for any other appointment either under the Government of India or under the Government of any State after he has ceased to hold his office.

(5) The salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of members of the staff of the Auditor-in-Chief of a State shall be fixed by the Auditor-in-Chief in consultation with the Governor and shall be charged upon the revenues of the State.

(6) Nothing in this article shall derogate from the power of the Auditor General of India to give such directions in respect of the accounts of the States for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule as are mentioned in article 126 of this Constitution.  

DC.211

Document Name > Paragraph Number

211. The reports of the Auditor-General of India or the Auditor-in Chief of the State, as the case may be, relating to the accounts of a State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule shall be submitted to the Governor of the State, who shall cause them to be laid before the Legislature of the State.

PART VII

THE STATES IN PART II OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE

DC.212

Document Name > Paragraph Number

212. (1) Subject to the other provisions of this Part, a State for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule [editor’s note: Delhi, Ajmer, Coorg] shall be administered by the President acting, to such extent as he thinks fit, through a Chief Commissioner or a Lieutenant-Governor to be appointed by him or through the Governor or Ruler of a neighbouring State:

Provided that the President shall not act through the Governor or Ruler of a neighbouring State save after-

(a) Consulting the Governor or Ruler concerned; and

(b) Ascertaining in such manner as the President considers most appropriate the wishes of the people of the State to be so administered.

(2) Any State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule whose Ruler has ceded full and exclusive authority, jurisdiction and powers for and in relation to the governance of the State to the Government of India shall be administered in all respects as if the State were for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule; and, accordingly, all the provisions of this Constitution relating to States specified in the said Part II shall apply to such State.

DC.213

Document Name > Paragraph Number

213. The President may, by order, create or continue for any State for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule and administered through a Chief Commissioner or Lieutenant-Governor-

(a) A local Legislature, or

(b) A Council of Advisers or both, with such constitution, powers and functions, in each case, as may be specified in the order.  

DC.214

Document Name > Paragraph Number

214. Until other provision is made in this behalf by the President, the constitution, powers and functions of the Coorg Legislative Council and the arrangements with respect to revenues collected in Coorg and expenses in respect of Coorg shall remain unchanged.

PART VIII

THE TERRITORIES IN PART IV OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE AND OTHER TERRITORIES NOT SPECIFIED IN THAT SCHEDULE

DC.215

Document Name > Paragraph Number

215. (1) Any territory specified in Part IV of the First Schedule [editor’s note: Andaman and Nicobar Islands] and any other territory comprised within the territory of India but not specified in that Schedule shall be administered by the President acting, to such extent as he thinks fit, through a Chief Commissioner or other authority to be appointed by him.

(2) The President may make regulations for the peace and good government of any such territory and any regulation so made may repeal or amend any law made by Parliament or any existing law which is for the time being applicable to such territory and, when promulgated by the President, shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament which applies to such territory.

PART IX

RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES

CHAPTER I

Legislative Relation

Distribution of Legislative Powers

DC.216

Document Name > Paragraph Number

216. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India, and the Legislature of a State may make laws for the whole or any part of the State.

(2) No law made by Parliament shall be deemed to be invalid on the ground that it would have extraterritorial operation.

DC.217

Document Name > Paragraph Number

217. (1) Notwithstanding anything in the two next succeeding clauses, Parliament has exclusive power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in List I in the Seventh Schedule (in this Constitution referred to as the "Union List").

(2) Notwithstanding anything in the next succeeding clause, Parliament and, subject to the preceding clause, the Legislature of any State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule also, have power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in List III in the Seventh Schedule (in this Constitution referred to as the "Concurrent List").

(3) Subject to the two preceding clauses, the Legislature of any State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule has exclusive power to make laws for such State or any part thereof with respect to any of the matters enumerated in List II in the Seventh Schedule (in this Constitution referred to as the "State List").

(4) Parliament has power to make laws with respect to any matter for any part of the territory of India not included for the time being in Part I or Part III of the First Schedule notwithstanding that such matter is a matter enumerated in the State List.

DC.218

Document Name > Paragraph Number

218. Parliament has the exclusive power to make laws with respect to the constitution, organisation, jurisdiction and powers of the Supreme Court.

DC.219

Document Name > Paragraph Number

219. Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, Parliament may by law provide for the establishment of any additional courts for the better administration of laws made by Parliament or of any existing law with respect to a matter enumerated in the Union List.

DC.220

Document Name > Paragraph Number

220. (1) The Legislature of a State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule has the exclusive power to make laws with respect to the constitution and organisation of any High Court having its principal seat within such State.

(2) Parliament has power to make laws with respect to the constitution and organisation of any High Court having its principal seat in a State for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule.

DC.221

Document Name > Paragraph Number

221. (1) Parliament has the exclusive power to make laws regarding the jurisdiction and powers of any High Court with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the Union List.

(2) The Legislature of a State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule in relation to which or in relation to any area within which a High Court exercises jurisdiction has the exclusive power to make laws regarding the jurisdiction and powers of such High Court in relation to such State or area with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List.

(3) Parliament and also the Legislature of a State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule in relation to which or in relation to any area within which a High Court exercises jurisdiction have power to make laws regarding the jurisdiction and powers of such High Court in relation to such State or area with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the Concurrent List.

(4) Parliament has power to make laws regarding the jurisdiction and powers of a High Court in relation to a State for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule or any area within such State with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List.

DC.222

Document Name > Paragraph Number

222. Parliament and also the Legislature of a State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule in which a High Court has its principal seat have power to make laws with respect to the procedure to be followed by such High Court in civil and criminal matters.

DC.223

Document Name > Paragraph Number

223. (1) Parliament has exclusive power to make any law with respect to any matter not enumerated in the Concurrent List or State List.

(2) Such power shall include the power of making any law imposing a tax not mentioned in either of those Lists.

DC.224

Document Name > Paragraph Number

224. Notwithstanding anything in clause (1) of article 217 of this Constitution-

(a) Parliament shall not have power to make laws with respect to any right relating to posts and telegraphs in any State or group of States for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule subsisting at the date of commencement of this Constitution until such right is extinguished by agreement between the Government of India and that State or group of States or is acquired by the Government of India:

Provided that nothing in this clause shall prevent Parliament from making any law for the regulation and control of posts and telegraphs in such State or group of States;

(b) The power of Parliament to make laws with respect to telephones, wireless, broadcasting and other like forms of communication in any State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule shall extend only to the making of laws for their regulation and control

(c) The power of Parliament to make laws with respect to corporations shall not include the power to make laws with respect to the incorporation, regulation and winding up of corporations owned or controlled by a State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule and carrying on business only within that State.

DC.225

Document Name > Paragraph Number

225. Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, the power of Parliament to make laws for a State or a group of States for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule shall be subject to the terms of any agreement entered into in that behalf by that State or group of States with the Government of India and the limitations contained therein.

DC.226

Document Name > Paragraph Number

226. Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, if the Council of States has declared by resolution supported by not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest that Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List specified in the resolution, it shall be lawful for Parliament to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to that matter.

DC.227

Document Name > Paragraph Number

227. (1) Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, Parliament shall, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, have power to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List.

(2) A law made by Parliament which Parliament would not but for the issue of a Proclamation of Emergency have been competent to make shall, to the extent of the incompetency, cease to have effect on the expiration of a period of six months after the Proclamation has ceased to operate, except as respects" things done or omitted to be done before the expiration of the said period.

DC.228

Document Name > Paragraph Number

228. Nothing in articles 226 and 227 of this Constitution shall restrict the power of the Legislature of a State to make any law which under this Constitution it has power to make, but if any provision of a law made by the Legislature of a State is repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament which Parliament has under either of the said articles power to make, the law made by Parliament, whether passed before or after the law made by the Legislature of the State shall prevail, and the law made by the Legislature of the State shall to the extent of the repugnancy, but so long only as the law made by Parliament continues to have effect, be inoperative.

DC.229

Document Name > Paragraph Number

229. (1) If it appears to the Legislature or Legislatures of one or more States to be desirable that any of the matters with respect to which Parliament has no power to make laws for the State or States except as provided in articles 226 and 227 of this Constitution should be regulated in such State or States by Parliament by law, and a resolution or resolutions to that effect is or are passed by the House or, where there are two Houses, by both the Houses of the Legislature of the State or of each of the States, it shall be lawful for Parliament to pass an Act for regulating that matter accordingly, and any Act so passed shall apply to such State or States and to any other State by which it is adopted afterwards by resolution passed in that behalf by the House or, where there are two Houses, by each of the Houses of the Legislature of that State.

(2) Any Act so passed by Parliament may be amended or repealed by an Act of Parliament passed or adopted in like manner but shall not, as respects any State to which it applies, be amended or repealed by an Act of the Legislature of that State.

DC.230

Document Name > Paragraph Number

230. Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, Parliament has power to make any law for any State or part thereof for implementing any treaty, agreement or convention with any other country or countries.

DC.231

Document Name > Paragraph Number

231. (1) If any provision of a law made by the Legislature of a State is repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament which Parliament is competent to enact, or to any provision of any existing law regarding a matter with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws, then, subject to the provisions of clause (2) of this article, the law made by Parliament, whether passed before or after the law made by the Legislature of such State or, as the case may be, the existing law shall prevail and the law made by the Legislature of the State shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void.

(2) Where a law made by the Legislature of a State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule with respect to one of the matters enumerated in the Concurrent List contains any provision repugnant to the provisions of an earlier law made by Parliament or any existing law with respect to that matter, then the law so made by the Legislature of such State shall, if it has been reserved for the consideration of the President and has received his assent, prevail:

Provided that nothing in this clause shall prevent Parliament from enacting at any time any law with respect to the same matter including a law adding to, amending, varying or repealing the law so made by the Legislature of the State.

Restriction on Legislative Powers

DC.232

Document Name > Paragraph Number

232. No Act of Parliament or of a Legislature of a State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule and no provision in any such Act shall be invalid by reason only that some recommendation required by this Constitution was not given, if assent to that Act was given-

(a) Where the recommendation required was that of the Governor, either by the Governor or by the President;

(b) Where the recommendation required was that of the President, by the President.

CHAPTER II

Administrative Relations

General

DC.233

Document Name > Paragraph Number

233. The executive power of every State shall be so exercised as to ensure compliance with the laws made by Parliament and any existing laws which apply in that State and the executive power of the Union shall extend to the giving of such directions to a State as may appear to the Government of India to be necessary for this purpose.

DC.234

Document Name > Paragraph Number

234. (1) The executive power of every State shall be so exercised as not to impede or prejudice the exercise of the executive power of the Union, and the executive power of the Union shall extend to the giving of such directions to a State as may appear to the Government of India to be necessary for that purpose.

(2) The executive power of the Union shall also extend to the giving of directions to a State as to the construction and maintenance of means of communication declared in the direction to be of national or military importance:

Provided that nothing in this clause shall be taken as restricting the power of Parliament to declare highways or waterways to be national highways or national waterways or the power of the Union with respect to the highways or waterways so declared or the power of the Union to construct and maintain means of communication as part of its functions with respect to naval, military and air force works.

DC.235

Document Name > Paragraph Number

235. (1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the President may with the consent of the Government of a State, entrust either conditionally or unconditionally to that Government or to its officers functions in relation to any matter to which the executive power of the Union extends.

(2) A law made by Parliament which applies in any State may, notwithstanding that it relates to a matter with respect to which the Legislature of the State has no power to make laws, confer powers and impose duties, or authorise the conferring of powers and the imposition of duties, upon the State or officers and authorities thereof.

(3) Where by virtue of this article powers and duties have been conferred or imposed upon a State or officers or authorities thereof, there shall be paid by the Government of India to the State such sum as may be agreed or, in default of agreement, as may be determined by an arbitrator appointed by the Chief Justice of India in respect of any extra costs of administration incurred by the State in connection with the exercise of those powers and duties.

DC.236

Document Name > Paragraph Number

236. (1) The Government of India may by agreement with any State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule, but subject to the provisions of this Constitution in regard to the relationship between the Union and such State, undertake any executive, legislative or judicial functions vested in that State.

(2) The Government of India may also enter into such an agreement with the Government of any Indian State not specified for the time being in the First Schedule, but every such agreement shall be subject to, and governed by, the law relating to the exercise of foreign jurisdiction for the time being in force.

Explanation.-In this clause, the expression "Indian State" means any territory, not being part of the territory of India which the President recognises as being such a State.

(3) If an agreement entered into with any State under clause (1) of this article provides for any matter with respect to which provision has been already made in an agreement entered into with such a State under article 237 of this Constitution by the Government of any State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule, then the latter agreement shall, in so far as it provides for such matter, be deemed to be revoked and of no effect on and from the date of conclusion of the former agreement.

(4) On an agreement under clause (1) of this article being concluded between the Union and a State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule-

(a) The executive power of the Union shall extend to any matter specified in that behalf in such agreement;

(b) Parliament shall have power to make laws with respect to any matter specified in that behalf in such agreement; and

(c) The Supreme Court of India shall, subject to the provisions of clause (2) of article 114 of this Constitution, have jurisdiction with respect to any matter specified in that behalf in such agreement.

DC.237

Document Name > Paragraph Number

237. (1) It shall be competent for the Government of a State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule with the previous sanction of the President to undertake, by an agreement made in that behalf with any State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule, any legislative, executive or judicial functions vested in the latter State, if such agreement relates to a matter which is enumerated in the State List or the Concurrent List.

(2) On an agreement under clause (1) of this article being concluded between a State for the time being specified in Part I of the First Schedule and a State for the time being specified in Part III of that Schedule-

(a) The executive power of the State specified in Part I of the said Schedule shall extend to any matter specified in that behalf in such agreement;

(b) The Legislature of the State specified in Part I of the said Schedule shall have power to make laws with respect to any matter specified in that behalf in such agreement; and

(c) The High Court and other appropriate courts in the State specified in Part I of the said Schedule shall have jurisdiction with respect to any matter specified in that behalf in such agreement.

DC.238

Document Name > Paragraph Number

238. (1) Full faith and credit shall be given throughout the territory of India to public acts, records and judicial proceedings of the Union and of every State.

(2) The manner in which and the conditions under which the acts, records and proceedings referred to in clause (1) of this article shall be proved and the effect thereof determined shall be as provided by law.

(3) Final judgments or orders delivered or passed by civil courts in any part of the territory of India shall be capable of execution anywhere within that territory according to law:

Provided that the provisions of clauses (1) and (3) of this article shall not apply to public acts, records and judicial proceedings of, and the final judgment or order delivered or passed by civil courts in, any State for the time being specified in Part III of the First Schedule unless Parliament has, under the terms of any agreement entered into in that behalf by such State with the Union, power to make laws with respect to the matters enumerated in entries 2, 4 and 5 of the Concurrent List.

Interference with Water-Supplies

DC.239

Document Name > Paragraph Number

239. If it appears to the Government of any State for the time being specified in Part I or Part III of the First Schedule that the interests of that State, or of any of the inhabitants thereof, in the water from any natural source of supply in any State have been, or are likely to be affected prejudicially by-

(a) Any executive action or legislation taken or passed, or proposed to be taken or passed; or

(b) The failure of any authority to exercise any of their powers, with respect to the use, distribution or control of water from that source, the Government of the State may complain to the President.  

DC.240

Document Name > Paragraph Number

240. (1) If the President receives such a complaint as aforesaid, he shall, unless he is of opinion that the issues involved are not of sufficient importance to warrant such action, appoint a Commission consisting of such persons having special knowledge and experience in irrigation, engineering, administration, finance or law as he thinks fit, and request that Commission to investigate in accordance with such instructions as he may give to them, and to report to him on the matters to which the complaint relates, or such of those matters as he may refer to them.

(2) A Commission so appointed shall investigate the matters referred to them and present to the President a report setting out the facts as found by them and making such recommendations as they think proper.

(3) If it appears to the President upon consideration of the Commission's report that anything therein contained requires explanation, or that he needs guidance upon any point not originally referred by him to the Commission, he may again refer the matter to the Commission for further investigation and a further report.

(4) For the purposes of assisting a Commission appointed under this article in investigating any matters referred to them, the Supreme Court, if requested by the Commission so to do, shall make such orders for the purposes of the proceedings of the Commission as they may make in the exercise of the jurisdiction of the court.

(5) The report of the Commission shall include a recommendation as to the Government or persons by whom the expenses of the Commission and any costs incurred by any State or persons in appearing before the Commission are to be paid and as to the amount of any expenses or costs to be so paid; and an order made by the President under this article, in so far as it relates to expenses or costs, may be enforced as if it were an order made by the Supreme Court.

(6) After considering any report made to him by the Commission the President shall, subject as hereinafter provided, make orders in accordance with the report.

(7) If upon consideration of the Commission's report the President is of opinion that anything therein contained involves a substantial question of law, he shall refer the question to the Supreme Court under article 119 of this Constitution and on receipt of the opinion of the Supreme Court thereon shall, unless the Supreme Court has agreed with the Commission's report, return the report to the Commission together with the opinion and the Commission shall thereupon make such modifications in the report as may be necessary to bring it in accord with such opinion and present the report as so modified to the President.

(8) Effect shall be given, in any State affected, to any order made under this article by the President, and any Act of the Legislature of a State which is repugnant to the order shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void.

(9) The President, on application made to him by the Government of any State affected, may at any time, if a Commission appointed as aforesaid so recommend, vary any order made under this article.

DC.241

Document Name > Paragraph Number

241. If it appears to the President that the interests of any State for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule, or of any of the inhabitants of such a State, in the water from any natural source of supply in any State for the time being specified in Part I or Part III of the First Schedule have been or are likely to be affected prejudicially by-

(a) Any executive action or legislation taken or passed, or proposed to be

taken or passed; or

(b) The failure of any authority to exercise any of their powers, with respect to the use, distribution or control of water from that source, he may, if he thinks fit, refer the matter to a Commission appointed in accordance with the provisions of the last preceding article and thereupon those provisions shall apply as if the State for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule were a State for the time being specified in Part I of that Schedule and as if a complaint with respect to the matter had been made by the Government of that State to the President.

DC.242

Document Name > Paragraph Number

242. Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any action or suit in respect of any matter, if action in respect of that matter might have been taken under any of the three last preceding articles by the Government of a State or the President.

Inter-State Trade and Commerce

DC.243

Document Name > Paragraph Number

243. No preference shall be given to one State over another nor shall any discrimination be made between one State and another by any law or regulation relating to trade or commerce, whether carried by land, water or air.

DC.244

Document Name > Paragraph Number

244. Notwithstanding anything contained in article 16 or in the last preceding article of this Constitution, it shall be lawful for any State-

(a) To impose on goods imported from other States any tax to which similar goods manufactured or produced in that State are subject, so, however, as not to discriminate between goods so imported and goods so manufactured or produced; and

(b) To impose by law such reasonable restrictions on the freedom of trade, commerce or intercourse with that State as may be required in the public interests:

Provided that during a period of five years from the commencement of this Constitution the provisions of clause (b) of this article shall not apply to trade or commerce in any of the commodities mentioned in clause (a) of article 306 of this Constitution.

DC.245

Document Name > Paragraph Number

245. Parliament shall by law appoint such authority as it considers appropriate for the carrying out of the provisions of articles 243 and 244 of this Constitution and confer on the authority so appointed such powers and such duties as it thinks necessary.

Co-ordination between States

DC.246

Document Name > Paragraph Number

246. If at any time it appears to the President that the public interests would be served by the establishment of a Council charged with the duty of-

(a) Inquiring into and advising upon disputes which may have arisen between States;

(b) Investigating and discussing subjects in which some or all of the States, or the Union and one or more of the States have a common interest; or

(c) Making recommendations upon any such subject and, in particular, recommendations for the better co-ordination of policy and action with respect to that subject, it shall be lawful for the President by order to establish such a Council and to define the nature of the duties to be performed by it and its organisation and procedure.

PART X

FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS

CHAPTER I

Finance

Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States

DC.247

Document Name > Paragraph Number

247. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,-

(a) "Finance Commission" means a Finance Commission constituted under article 260 of this Constitution;

(b) "State" does not include a State for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule;

(c) References to States for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule shall include references to any territory specified in Part IV of the First Schedule and any other territory comprised within the territory of India but not specified in that Schedule.

DC.248

Document Name > Paragraph Number

248. Subject to the following provisions of this Chapter with respect to the assignment of the whole or part of the net proceeds of certain taxes and duties to States, the expression "revenues of India" includes all revenues and public moneys raised or received by the 'Government of India and the expression "revenues of the State" includes all revenues and public moneys raised or received by the Government of a State.

DC.249

Document Name > Paragraph Number

249. (1) Such stamp duties and such duties of excise on medicinal and toilet preparations as are mentioned in the Union List shall be levied by the Government of India but shall be collected-

(a) In the case where such duties are leviable within any State for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule, by the Government of India, and

(b) In other cases, by the States within which such duties are respectively leviable.

(2) The proceeds in any financial year of any such duty leviable in that year within any State shall not form part of the revenues of India, but shall be assigned to that State. |268||

DC.250

Document Name > Paragraph Number

250. (1) The following duties and taxes shall be levied and collected by the Government of India but shall be assigned to the States in the manner provided in clause (2) of this article, namely:-

(a) Duties in respect of succession to property other than agricultural land;

(b) Estate duty in respect of property other than agricultural land;

(c) Terminal taxes on goods or passengers carried by railway or air;

(d) Taxes on railway fares and freights.

(2) The net proceeds in any financial year of any such duty or tax, except in so far as those proceeds represent proceeds attributable to States for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule, shall not form part of the revenues of India, but shall be assigned to the States within which that duty or tax is leviable in that year, and shall be distributed among those States in accordance with such principles of distribution as may be formulated by Parliament by law.

DC.251

Document Name > Paragraph Number

251. (1) Taxes on income other than agricultural income shall be levied and collected by the Government of India and distributed between the Union and the States in the manner provided in clause (2) of this article.

(2) Such percentage, as may be prescribed, of the net proceeds in any financial year of any such tax, except in so far as those proceeds represent proceeds attributable to States for the time being specified in Part II of the First Schedule or the taxes payable in respect of Union emoluments, shall not form part of the revenues of India, but shall be assigned to the States within which that tax is leviable in that year, and shall be distributed among those States in such manner and from such time as may be prescribed.