(1) India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.


(2) The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.


(3) The territory of India shall comprise —

(a) the territories of the States;

(b) the Union territories specified in the First Schedule; and

(c) such other territories as may be acquired.

Debate Summary

Article 1, Draft Constitution, 1948 

(1) India shall be a Union of States. 

(2) The States shall mean the States for the time being specified in Parts I, II and III of the First Schedule. 

(3) The territory of India shall comprise- 

(a) The territories of the States; 

(b) The territories for the time being specified in Part IV of the First Schedule; and 

(c) Such other territories as may be acquired. 


Draft Article 1 (Article 1 of Constitution of India 1950) was debated on 15th and 17th November 1948, and 17th and 18th September 1949. The Draft Article declared that ‘India’ was a ‘Union of States’ and went on to define India’s territory.  


Most members were confused as to why India was described as a ‘Union of States’, instead of a ‘Federation’ which was more appropriate. On an earlier date, the Drafting Committee Chairman explained that ‘Union of States’ was used to ensure and clarify that States did not have the right to secede from India.  


A Member wanted to rename 'India' to ‘Bharat’ as the latter had more historical pedigree. Another Member introduced an amendment to use both ‘India’ and ‘Bharat’ in the Draft Article. The Drafting Committee Chairman through amendment suggested that the Draft Article say ‘India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States’. Except for one member who found the phrasing inelegant, the amendment won the support of the house.  


The Assembly rejected all amendments to the Draft Article except those introduced by Drafting Committee Chairman. It adopted the Draft Article on 18th September 1949.