Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad. He was a barrister trained in Cambridge. After his return from London in 1912, Nehru enrolled himself as an advocate of the Allahabad High Court.
Role in India’s Independence Movement:
Nehru led the Non-Cooperation movement and the Kisan movement in the United Provinces in 1920, participated in the protest against the Simon Commission in 1928, moved the Purna Swaraj Declaration in 1930, lead the Civil Disobedience movement in United Provinces in 1930 and participated in the Quit India movement in 1942. He held the post of the President of the Indian National Congress many times and was the Prime Minister during the interim Indian Government between 1946 and 1950.
Contribution to Constitution Making:
Nehru was elected to the Constituent Assembly from United Provinces on a Congress Party ticket and held important positions on various committees. He actively participated in the Assembly debates and spoke on the objectives resolution and national language.
Nehru served as India’s first Prime Minister for 17 years from 1947 to 1962. As Prime Minister, he played a critical role in the Indian economy: he was instrumental in the adoption of import substitution and the development of the heavy industries sector. He established many academic institutions including the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology, the Indian Institutes of Management and the National Institutes of Technology.
Nehru played a key role in India adopting an independent foreign policy through its support and membership of the Non-Alignment movement. However, his handling of the India-China relationship during the early late 1950s and early 1960s was considered a failure.
He died on 27th May 1967 in New Delhi due to coronary thrombosis.
Nehru's notable works include Towards freedom; the Autobiography of Jawaharlal Nehru (1936); The Discovery of India (1946); and Glimpses of World History (1934).